Bias List

Formal Fallacies


Anecdotal Evidence

In cases where small numbers of anecdotes are presented, there is a larger chance that they may be unreliable due to cherry-picked or otherwise non-representative samples of typical cases.


Appeal to Probability

When a conclusion is assumed not because it is probably true, but because it is possible that it is true, no matter how improbable..


Argument From Fallacy

Analyzing an argument and inferring that, since it contains a fallacy, its conclusion must be false.


Base Rate Fallacy

If presented with related base rate information (i.e. generic, general information) and specific information (information only pertaining to a certain case), the mind tends to ignore the former and focus on the latter.


Conjunction Fallacy

Occurs when it is assumed that specific conditions are more probable than a single general one.


Existential Fallacy

Presupposing that a class has members. One example would be: "Everyone in the room is pretty and smart". It does not imply that there is a pretty, smart person in the room, because it does not state that there is a person in the room.


Masked Man Fallacy

Inferring that since one knows (does not know) something by one description, one must know (not know) it by another, as in "I know who my father is. I do not know who the masked man is. Therefore, my father is not the masked man."