BiasList.com

An extensive list of cognitive biases and logical fallacies

Showing all 931 entries

Bias or fallacy name Also known as Description Reference Added Updated ID
Scrooge McDuck fallacy A mistaken belief that "wealthy peole hoard their money in bank vaults".  A fallacy surrounding: capitalism. [27] 2024-07-15 2024-07-15 921_lf
golden age fallacy A mistaken belief that people "should strive to return to" a "perfect time in history" that existed.  A fallacy surrounding: capitalism. [27] 2024-07-15 2024-07-15 922_lf
corporate tax dodge callacy A mistaken belief that "corporations don't pay any tax".  A fallacy surrounding: capitalism. [27] 2024-07-15 2024-07-15 923_lf
fair share fallacy A mistaken belief that "the rich pay no tax".  A fallacy surrounding: capitalism. [27] 2024-07-15 2024-07-15 924_lf
wage dictation fallacy A mistaken belief that "salaries are set by individual companies or the government, and that some salaries are artificially inflated or deflated".  A fallacy surrounding: capitalism. [27] 2024-07-15 2024-07-15 925_lf
rent control fallacy A mistaken belief that "rent caps lower prices".  A fallacy surrounding: capitalism. [27] 2024-07-15 2024-07-15 926_lf
affordable units fallacy A mistaken belief that "building luxury apartmente doesn't improve the affordabilty of existing appartments, or even that it increases their prices".  A fallacy surrounding: capitalism. [27] 2024-07-15 2024-07-15 927_lf
fixed pie fallacy A mistaken belief that "there is a fixed pie of wealth, and every winner creates a loser".  A fallacy surrounding: capitalism. [27] 2024-07-15 2024-07-15 928_lf
work exploitation fallacy A mistaken belief that "employment is a form of exploitation".  A fallacy surrounding: capitalism. [27] 2024-07-15 2024-07-15 929_lf
unaffordable innovation fallacy A mistaken belief that "technology is unaffordable and is only for the rich".  A fallacy surrounding: capitalism. [27] 2024-07-15 2024-07-15 930_lf
scarcity fallacy A mistaken belief that "earth is ru nning out of resources".  A fallacy surrounding: capitalism. [27] 2024-07-15 2024-07-15 931_lf
argument from nature appeal to nature 2024-07-11 2024-07-11 918_lf
G.E. Moore's naturalistic fallacy G.E. Moore's naturalistic fallacy, naturalistic fallacy A fallacy of inferring "that X is good from any proposition about X’s natural properties".  Different than: "argument from nature", "the appeal to nature". [25] 2024-07-11 2024-07-11 920_lf
testimonial eminence-based practice, falacia ad verecundiam, faulty use of authority, questionable authority, star power, testimonial A fallacy in which arguments "are granted fame and validity or condemed to obscurity soley by whoever may be the reigning stars or premier journals of the profession or discpline at the moment". A "corrupt argument from ethos".  Includes: faulty use of quotes. [3] 2024-06-21 2024-06-21 916_lf
observation selection effect anthropic bias, anthropic principle, anthropic selection effect, observation selection effect The tendency for observations about the universe to only be made when there is someone to observe the data or to do the study.  Subforms include: weak anthropic principle (universe fine tuning being the result of survivorship bias), strong anthropic principle (the universe being compleled to have conscious, sapient life), participatory anthropic principle (the universe must be observed to exist), final anthropic principle (informational processing as inherent to universe existence).  An example of: selection effect. [19], [20] 2024-06-16 2024-07-07 691_lf
discredit by association guilt by association A fallacy of trying to argue against a point by "evoking the negative ethos" (the negative charcteristics) of the associations of the opponent (e.g., by way of their professional or social relationships, political party, religion, ethnicity, or other group or institutional memberhip).  An extreme case is: for my enemies nothing. 2024-06-16 2024-06-21 915_lf
a person's got to do what a person's got to do a person's got to do what a person's got to do, a man's got to do what a man's got to do, a woman's got to do what a woman's got to do, I've got to do what I've got to do This fallacy draws a conclusion based on (potentially prejudiced identity or gender-based) feelings or emotion not necessarily having a foundation in logical reasoning (e.g., it is possible that they do not really have to arrive at that outcome).  A form of the affective fallacy. [3] 2024-06-14 2024-07-02 910_lf
a woman's got to do what a woman's got to do a person's got to do what a person's got to do, a woman's got to do what a woman's got to do, I've got to do what I've got to do This fallacy draws a conclusion based on (potentially prejudiced identity or gender-based) feelings or emotion not necessarily having a foundation in logical reasoning (e.g., it is possible that they do not really have to arrive at that outcome).  A form of the affective fallacy. [3] 2024-06-14 2024-07-02 911_lf
I've got to do what I've got to do a person's got to do what a person's got to do, a man's got to do what a man's got to do, I've got to do what I've got to do This fallacy draws a conclusion based on (potentially prejudiced identity or gender-based) feelings or emotion not necessarily having a foundation in logical reasoning (e.g., it is possible that they do not really have to arrive at that outcome).  A form of the affective fallacy. [3] 2024-06-14 2024-07-02 912_lf
name calling The fallacy of applying a label to an arguer and assigning or implying a conclusion based on that applied label instead of evaluating or addressing the argument at hand.  A form of ad hominem.  A simplified from of argumentum ad personam. [8], [9], [11] 2024-06-14 2024-06-14 913_lf
argumentum ad personam Often, synonymous with argumentum ad hominem (arguing against a person holding a claim instead of arguing against the claim itself).Sometimes, "appealing to the personal interests of someone in order persuade someone to accept an argumentative claim" ("rather than directing an argument towards the issue at hand").See also: ad hominem argument, argumentum ad hominem, argument toward the man, attacking the person, poisoning the well. [8], [9], [11], [15] 2024-06-14 2024-07-02 914_lf
this is the best of all possible worlds acquiescence, better the devil you know than the devil you don't, deal with it, default bias, get used to it, if it ain't broke don't fix it, it is what it is, let it be let it be, making one's peace with the situation, normalization of evil, this is the best of all possible worlds, whatever is is right The fallacy that just because something is the current state that is therefore the preferred state.  Opposite of: nihilism. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 491_lf
I wish I had a magic wand [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 492_lf
Job's comforter fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 493_lf
a priori argument A given pre-conceived conclusion is determined from the start, then any argument is sought to support it.  Reasoning "from what is before" without observation or experience. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 494_lf
ad hominem argument argumentum ad hominem, argument toward the man, attacking the person, personal attack, poisoning the well Arguing against the opposing party instead of the reasoning given by the opposing party. This might question the intelligence, credentials, or character of the opposition. A "corrupted negative argument from ethos". Subcategories include abusive and circumstantial types. A fallacy of relevance. The opposite of star power. An obverse is token endorsement. See also: guilt by association. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-19 495_lf
all's fair in love and war changing the rules, moving the goalposts, nuclear option, winning isn't everything it's the only thing Starting with certain requirements for a decision, then, when, the criteria are met, requiring a higher bar.  "A fallacy of logos". [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-14 496_lf
alpha-male speech locker-room talk, bad-boy talk A form of "frank, unguarded or uninhibited offensive expression".  A fallacy that holds that some words are excempt from criticism because they are simply the true expression of some perspective having merit due to their representing the uncensored expression of true feelings.  See also: venting.  See also: affective fallacy.  Opposite to this are political correctness and scripted message. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-14 497_lf
apathetic fallacy burnout, compassion fatigue, cynicism The fallacy in which legitimate arguments are ignored due claimed lack of caring. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-15 498_lf
so what appeal to privacy, mind your own business, MYOB, none of yer beeswax, so what, you're not the boss of me A fallacy of preventing discussion of one's point by "drawing a phony curtian of privacy around oneself and one's actions".  A counterpart is: heart of darkness syndrome, I think we're alone now, nobody will ever know, what happens in Vegas stays in Vegas. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-26 499_lf
appeal to rigor A fallacy arguing based on mercilessness (showing no fear or pity).  "Often based on machismo or on manipulating an audience's fear."  Can apply to "politically-motivated or elitist calls for academic rigor".  Can apply to criticism of developmental or remedial classes, open admissions, dumbing down, and grade inflation.  Opposite of: affective fallacy, appeal to emotion, appeal to pity, argument from pity, argumentum ad misericordiam, emotion over reflection, follow your heart, playing to emotions, romantic fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-26 500_lf
argument from motives argument from motives, questioning motives A fallacy of claiming a point to be false simply on account of improper or evil motives of the person making the claim.  See also: moral licensing. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-28 501_lf
argument from natural law A fallacy in which something is deemed to be true or untrue, or good or bad, as a result of being natural or unnatural (or "against nature") as judged by one's own authority to determine what is natural or unnatural. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 502_lf
autist's fallacy autist's fallacy, mind blindness A fallacy in which normal human capacity for "theory of mind" is entirely denied in which it is held that no one can truly understand or know "another's thoughts, emotions, motivations or intents".  The opposite of: mind-reading. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 503_lf
bad-boy talk alpha-male talk, locker-room talk A form of "frank, unguarded or uninhibited offensive expression".  A fallacy that holds that some words are excempt from criticism because they are simply the true expression of some perspective having merit due to their representing the uncensored expression of true feelings.  See also: venting.  See also: affective fallacy.  Opposite to this are political correctness and scripted message. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-14 504_lf
be-verb fallacy A fallacy holding that "an extraordinary degree of clarity, sanity, or textual liveliness can be reached by...eliminating all passive verb forms and all forms of the verb 'to be' from English-language writing."  A "cultish linguistic theory".  An obverse of: passive voice fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 505_lf
big but fallacy big but fallacy, special pleading A fallacy of stating "a generally-accepted principle and then directly negating it with a 'but'.  Often detailed as a special case "supposedly exempt from the usual rules of law, logic, morality, ethics or even credibility".  Closely related to: contradictory premises.  A component fallacy. [1], [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 506_lf
anthropic principle anthropic bias, anthropic principle, anthropic selection effect, observation selection effect The tendency for observations about the universe to only be made when there is someone to observe the data or to do the study.  Subforms include: weak anthropic principle (universe fine tuning being the result of survivorship bias), strong anthropic principle (the universe being compleled to have conscious, sapient life), participatory anthropic principle (the universe must be observed to exist), final anthropic principle (informational processing as inherent to universe existence).  An example of: selection effect. [19], [20] 2024-06-12 2024-07-07 507_
blaming the victim A fallacy in which one "casts the blame for one's own evil or questionable actions on those affected". A form of: scapegoating, blamecasting.  See also: affective fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 508_lf
blood of the martyrs fallacy blood of the martyrs fallacy, waving the bloody shirt A fallacy holding that "a cause or argument, no matter how questionable or reprehensible, cannot be questioned without dishonoring the blood and sacrifice of those who died so nobly for that cause".  An extreme example of: E for effort, I'm trying by best, lost cause.  See also: appeal to pity, argument from inertia, cost bias, heroes all, sob story, soldiers' honor fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 509_lf
bribery bribery, financial incentive, material incentive, material persuasion A fallacy of obtaining a position through "gifts or favors".  Often does not stick unless bribes continue.  The reverse of: argumentum ad baculum, appeal to force, argument from the club (stick), argument from force, might-makes-right.  See also: appeasement, assertiveness, I know my rights, squeaky wheel gets the grease. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-26 510_lf
calling "cards" A fallacy of "arbitrarily and falsely dismissing familiar or easily-anticipated but valid, reasoned objections to one's standpoint with a wave of the hand", as though such objections were mere "cards" in some sort of "game" of rhetoric.  A fallacy of logos.  See also: taboo, political correctness. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 511_lf
campaign promises campaign promises, demagogy A fallacy of "deliberately lying to the people to gain their support or motivate" some action desired by the promoter of the lie.  Related: self deception, whistling by the graveyard.  See also: argument to the people, argumentum ad populum, dog-whistle politics, othering. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 512_lf
changing the rules all's fair in love and war, moving the goalposts, nuclear option, winning isn't everything it's the only thing Starting with certain requirements for a decision, then, when, the criteria are met, requiring a higher bar.  "A fallacy of logos". [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-14 513_lf
anthropic selection effect anthropic bias, anthropic principle, anthropic selection effect [19] 2024-06-12 2024-07-07 514_
complexity [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 515_lf
cultural appropriation [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 516_lf
dehumanization dehumanised perception, dehumanization As a cognitive bias: a phenomenon of "not attributing feelings or thoughts to another person"; a form of: objectification.  As a logical fallacy: a "faulty analogy where opponents are dismissed as mere cockroaches, lice, apes, monkeys, rats, weasels or bloodsucking parasites who have no right to speak or to live at all, and probably should be squashed like bugs"; opposite of: Polyanna principle, projection bias, singing kumbay, they're just like us; see also: identity fallacy, name calling, olfactory rhetoric. [3], [6] 2024-06-12 2024-07-07 517_cb_lf
demagogy campaign promises, demagogy A fallacy of "deliberately lying to the people to gain their support or motivate" some action desired by the promoter of the lie.  Related: self deception, whistling by the graveyard.  See also: argument to the people, argumentum ad populum, dog-whistle politics, othering. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 518_lf
denominational [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 519_lf
denominational blindness [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 520_lf
diminished responsibility [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 521_lf
dog-whistle politics [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 522_lf
ego / nos quoque [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 523_lf
either/or reasoning all or nothing thinking, bifurcation, black and white fallacy, black/white fallacy, either/or reasoning, excluded middle, false binary, false dichotomy, false dilemma A conclusion is reached based on there only being two possible options, when really the possibilities are not so limited.  A component fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-14 524_lf
elections have consequences [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 525_lf
emotional [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 526_lf
evening up the score [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 527_lf
excluded outliers [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 528_lf
fait accompli [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 529_lf
fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 530_lf
faulty use of quotes devil quotes scripture [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-21 531_lf
for my enemies nothing fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 532_lf
fundamental attribution [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 533_lf
get over it [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 534_lf
hedonism [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 535_lf
hero-busting [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 536_lf
hey sports fans [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 537_lf
hyperbole [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 538_lf
hypostatization [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 539_lf
identity fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 540_lf
ineffability [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 541_lf
information cascade A fallacy in which one echoes others' opinions (often online), even when their own opinions or information exposure contradicts that position. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-26 542_lf
infotainment [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 543_lf
it is what it is acquiescence, better the devil you know than the devil you don't, deal with it, default bias, get used to it, if it ain't broke don't fix it, it is what it is, let it be let it be, making one's peace with the situation, normalization of evil, this is the best of all possible worlds, whatever is is right The fallacy that just because something is the current state that is therefore the preferred state.  Opposite of: nihilism. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 544_lf
just a job [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 545_lf
just do it accomplish the mission, by any means necessary, find a way, I don't care how you do it An argumentum ad baculum (argument from force) that implies arriving at an outcome by aside morality. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-13 546_lf
just plain folks [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 547_lf
language control [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 548_lf
law of unintended consequences [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 549_lf
leading the witness fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 550_lf
live as though you're dying [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 551_lf
locker-room talk alpha-male talk, bad-boy talk A form of "frank, unguarded or uninhibited offensive expression".  A fallacy that holds that some words are excempt from criticism because they are simply the true expression of some perspective having merit due to their representing the uncensored expression of true feelings.  See also: venting.  See also: affective fallacy.  Opposite to this are political correctness and scripted message. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-14 552_lf
long ago and far away [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 553_lf
love bombing [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 554_lf
love it or leave it [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 555_lf
lying with statistics [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 556_lf
magical thinking [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 557_lf
mainsplaining [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 558_lf
mala fides arguing in bad faith, mala fides, sophism A fallacy of putting forth an argument that the argue knows is invalid.  Includes: motivational truth, demagogy, campaign promises, self deception, whistling by the graveyward. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-26 559_lf
mansplaining [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 560_lf
measurability [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 561_lf
middle of the road fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 562_lf
mind [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 563_lf
mind blindness autist's fallacy, mind blindness A fallacy in which normal human capacity for "theory of mind" is entirely denied in which it is held that no one can truly understand or know "another's thoughts, emotions, motivations or intents".  The opposite of: mind-reading. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 564_lf
MYOB appeal to privacy, mind your own business, MYOB, none of yer beeswax, so what, you're not the boss of me A fallacy of preventing discussion of one's point by "drawing a phony curtian of privacy around oneself and one's actions".  A counterpart is: heart of darkness syndrome, I think we're alone now, nobody will ever know, what happens in Vegas stays in Vegas. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-26 565_lf
mind-reading A fallacy in which one claims to cleary understand another's thoughts, emotions, motivations, and body language based on mere speculation, at times claiming to understanding these things better than the subject himself.  This speculative "knowledge" can be used in an attempt to incorrectly the support other claims.  An ancient fallacy.  A corruption of stasis theory (agreeing to disagree).  The opposite of: autist's fallacy, mind blindness. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 566_lf
monolingual [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 567_lf
moral high ground [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 568_lf
moral licensing [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 569_lf
moral superiority [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 570_lf
mortification [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 571_lf
motivational truth [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 572_lf
moving the ball down the field [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 573_lf
moving the goalposts all's fair in love and war, changing the rules, nuclear option, winning isn't everything it's the only thing Starting with certain requirements for a decision, then, when, the criteria are met, requiring a higher bar.  "A fallacy of logos". [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-14 574_lf
name dropping [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 575_lf
name-calling [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 576_lf
narrative fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 577_lf
newspeak [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 578_lf
nihilism [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 579_lf
no discussion [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 580_lf
no pain no gain [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 581_lf
nobody will ever know heart of darkness syndrome, I think we're alone now, nobody will ever know, what happens in Vegas stays in Vegas A fallacy holding that "one may freely commit immoral, selfish, negative or evil acts at will without expecting any of the normal consequences or punishment" "just because nobody important is looking (or because one is on vacation, or away in college, or overseas)".  A counterpart to: appeal to privacy, mind your own business, MYOB, none of yer beeswax, so what, you're not the boss of me [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-26 582_lf
non-recognition [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 583_lf
not in my back yard (NIMBY) [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 584_lf
nothing new under the sun [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 585_lf
nuclear option all's fair in love and war, changing the rules, moving the goalposts, winning isn't everything it's the only thing Starting with certain requirements for a decision, then, when, the criteria are met, requiring a higher bar.  "A fallacy of logos". [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-14 586_lf
obscurantism [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 587_lf
olfactory rhetoric [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 588_lf
oops! [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 589_lf
othering [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 590_lf
overexplanation [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 591_lf
overgeneralization [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 592_lf
panic [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 593_lf
paralysis of analysis [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 594_lf
pars pro toto fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 595_lf
passive voice fallacy bureaucratic passive, passive voice fallacy An obverse is: be-verb fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 596_lf
paternalism [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 597_lf
personalization [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 598_lf
plain truth fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 599_lf
plausible deniability [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 600_lf
playing on emotion bleeding heart, drama queen or drama king fallacy, pathetic fallacy, playing on emotion, sob story A fallacy in which, ignoring facts, emotion is evoked alone.  A fallacy "of pure argument from pathos".  The opposite is: apathetic fallacy, burnout, compassion fatigue, cynicism.  An obverse is: refinement, real feelings.  See also: othering. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 601_lf
pleasure-hating [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 602_lf
political correctness [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 603_lf
Pollyanna principle [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-07 604_lf
positive thinking fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 605_lf
post hoc argument post hoc argument, post hoc propter hoc, post hoc ergo propter hoc, too much of a coincidence, clustering illusion A "classic paranoiac fallacy of attributing an imaginary causality to random coincidences, concluding that just because something happens close to, at the same time as, or just after something else, the first thing is caused by the second".  See also: cum hoc ergo propter hoc, correlation implies causation. [3], [6] 2024-06-12 2024-07-05 606_lf
post-truth [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 607_lf
pout [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 608_lf
procrustean fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 609_lf
prosopology [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 610_lf
reductio ad Hitlerum ad Hitlerum An example of ad hominem or guilt by association that invokes a specific extreme persona from history. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-13 611_lf
reductionism [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 612_lf
refinement [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 613_lf
reifying [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 614_lf
relativizing [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 615_lf
romantic rebel brave heretic, conspiracy theories, iconoclastic fallacy, romantic rebel, truthout fallacy, truthdig fallacy A fallacy of holding a claim as true just because that position "is supposedly standing up heroically to the dominant orthodoxy, the current standard model, conventional wisdom or political correctness, or whatever may be the bandwagon of the moment".  A corrupt argument from ethos.  The opposite of: bandwagon fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 616_lf
safe place [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 617_lf
safe space [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 618_lf
salacious fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 619_lf
save the children fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 620_lf
scapegoating blamecasting, scapegoating A fallacy in which there is always someone else to blame than oneself when anything goes wrong.  For scapegoating, the blamed entity is typically "other" or marginalized in some way already. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 621_lf
scare tactics appeal to fear, bogeyman fallacy, paranoia, scare tactics, shockdoc, shock doctrine, rally 'round the flag, rally 'round the president A fallacy in which one takes "advantage of a emergent or deliberately-created crisis and its associated public shock, panic and chaos in order to impose an argument, action or solution that would be clearly unacceptable if carefully considered".  A "corrupted argument from pathos".  A form of playing on emotions.  See also: shopping hungry fallacy, dog-whistle politics, we have to do something, worst-case fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 622_lf
scoring [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 623_lf
scripted message [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 624_lf
scruples [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 625_lf
self debasement [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 626_lf
self deception self deception, self fooling [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-08 627_lf
self deprecation [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 628_lf
self righteousness [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 629_lf
sending the wrong message [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 630_lf
shibboleth [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 631_lf
shifting the burden of proof [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 632_lf
shopping hungry fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 633_lf
silent majority fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 634_lf
simpleton's fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 635_lf
slippery slope camel's nose fallacy, domino theory, slippery slope A fallacy holding that "one thing inevitably leads to another" when this is not necessarily the case.  A non sequitur.  A component fallacy. [1], [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 636_lf
snow job [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 637_lf
soldiers' honor fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 638_lf
space place [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 639_lf
speakee fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 640_lf
sports world fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 641_lf
standard version fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 642_lf
star power eminence-based practice, falacia ad verecundiam, faulty use of authority, questionable authority, star power, testimonial A fallacy in which arguments "are granted fame and validity or condemed to obscurity soley by whoever may be the reigning stars or premier journals of the profession or discpline at the moment". A "corrupt argument from ethos".  Includes: faulty use of quotes. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-21 643_lf
state actor fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 644_lf
stockholm syndrome [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 645_lf
straw man straw man, straw man argument, strawman [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-10 646_lf
suck it up [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 647_lf
sui generis fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 648_lf
taboo [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 649_lf
talking points [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 650_lf
there is no alternative (TINA) [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 651_lf
they're all biased [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 652_lf
they're all crooks [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 653_lf
third person effect [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 654_lf
thousand flowers fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 655_lf
throwing good money after bad [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 656_lf
tiny percentage fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 657_lf
token endorsement fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 658_lf
tone policing [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 659_lf
trust your gut [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 660_lf
truthiness [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 661_lf
tu quoque [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 662_lf
two truths [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 663_lf
two-sides fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 664_lf
venting [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 665_lf
venue [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 666_lf
voice of the voiceless [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 667_lf
waving the bloody shirt blood of the martyrs fallacy, waving the bloody shirt A fallacy holding that "a cause or argument, no matter how questionable or reprehensible, cannot be questioned without dishonoring the blood and sacrifice of those who died so nobly for that cause".  An extreme example of: e for effort, I'm trying by best, lost cause.  See also: appeal to pity, argument from inertia, cost bias, heroes all, sob story, soldiers' honor fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 668_lf
we have to do something [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 669_lf
where there's smoke there's fire [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 670_lf
whistling by the graveyard [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 671_lf
winning isn't everything it's the only thing all's fair in love and war, changing the rules, moving the goalposts, nuclear option Starting with certain requirements for a decision, then, when, the criteria are met, requiring a higher bar.  "A fallacy of logos". [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-14 672_lf
wisdom of the crowd [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 673_lf
worst negates the bad be grateful for what you've got, worst negates the bad A fallacy in which it is claimed that "an objectively bad situation somehow isn't so bad simply because it could have been far worse, or because someone, somewhere has it even worse". [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 674_lf
worst-case fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 675_lf
you can't win if you don't play An obverse of: Hoyle's fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-05 676_lf
you speakee da english [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 677_lf
you talk too much [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 678_lf
zero tolerance [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 679_lf
Fordism [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 680_lf
Gitmo solution [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 681_lf
I do it too [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-26 682_lf
I don't care how you do it accomplish the mission, by any means necessary, find a way, just do it An argumentum ad baculum (argument from force) that implies arriving at an outcome by aside morality. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-13 683_lf
I don't want to hear it! [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 684_lf
I forgot... [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 685_lf
base rate neglect base rate fallacy, base rate neglect A "tendency to ignore general information and focus on information only pertaining to the specific case, even when the general information is more important".  A form of extension neglect. [6] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 686_cb
I think we're alone now heart of darkness syndrome, I think we're alone now, nobody will ever know, what happens in Vegas stays in Vegas A fallacy holding that "one may freely commit immoral, selfish, negative or evil acts at will without expecting any of the normal consequences or punishment" "just because nobody important is looking (or because one is on vacation, or away in college, or overseas)".  A counterpart to: appeal to privacy, mind your own business, MYOB, none of yer beeswax, so what, you're not the boss of me [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-26 687_lf
I'm trying my best [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 688_lf
KISS principle [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 689_lf
October surprise [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 690_lf
Wikipedia fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 692_lf
a man's gotta do what a man's gotta do a person's got to do what a person's got to do, a woman's got to do what a woman's got to do, I've got to do what I've got to do This fallacy draws a conclusion based on (potentially prejudiced identity or gender-based) feelings or emotion not necessarily having a foundation in logical reasoning (e.g., it is possible that they do not really have to arrive at that outcome).  A form of the affective fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-14 693_lf
accomplish the mission by any means necessary, find a way, I don't care how you do it, just do it An argumentum ad baculum (argument from force) that implies arriving at an outcome by aside morality. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-13 694_lf
acquiescence better the devil you know than the devil you don't, deal with it, default bias, get used to it, if it ain't broke don't fix it, it is what it is, let it be let it be, making one's peace with the situation, normalization of evil, this is the best of all possible worlds, this is the only possible world, whatever is is right The fallacy that just because something is the current state that is therefore the preferred state.  Opposite of: nihilism. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 695_lf
ad Hitleram reductio ad Hitlerum An example of ad hominem or guilt by association that invokes a specific extreme persona from history. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-13 696_lf
an abundance of caution better safe than sorry, better to prevent than to lament, just in case A fallacy of pessimism with reasoning based on a far-fetched, unlikely, or even entirely imaginary worst-case scenario isntead of being based on reality. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-14 697_lf
appeal to fear appeal to fear, bogeyman fallacy, paranoia, scare tactics, shockdoc, shock doctrine, rally 'round the flag, rally 'round the president A fallacy in which one takes "advantage of a emergent or deliberately-created crisis and its associated public shock, panic and chaos in order to impose an argument, action or solution that would be clearly unacceptable if carefully considered".  A "corrupted argument from pathos".  A form of playing on emotions.  See also: shopping hungry fallacy, dog-whistle politics, we have to do something, worst-case fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 698_lf
appeal to privacy appeal to privacy, mind your own business, MYOB, none of yer beeswax, so what, you're not the boss of me A fallacy of preventing discussion of one's point by "drawing a phony curtian of privacy around oneself and one's actions".  A counterpart is: heart of darkness syndrome, I think we're alone now, nobody will ever know, what happens in Vegas stays in Vegas. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-26 699_lf
arguing in bad faith arguing in bad faith, mala fides, sophism A fallacy of putting forth an argument that the argue knows is invalid.  Includes: motivational truth, demagogy, campaign promises, self deception, whistling by the graveyward. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-26 700_lf
argument from force appeal to force, argument from force, argument from strength, argument from the club (stick), argumentum ad baculum, bullying, fascism, hard power, might-makes-right, muscular leadership, non-negotiable demands, power-play, resolution by force of arms, shock and awe A fallacy in which a conclusion is reached due to force, threat of force, or threat of unpleasantness.  A fallacy of relevance, since reason for conclusion is not relevant to the argument at hand. [1]. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 701_lf
argument from strength appeal to force, argument from force, argument from strength, argument from the club (stick), argumentum ad baculum, bullying, fascism, hard power, might-makes-right, muscular leadership, non-negotiable demands, power-play, resolution by force of arms, shock and awe A fallacy in which a conclusion is reached due to force, threat of force, or threat of unpleasantness.  A fallacy of relevance, since reason for conclusion is not relevant to the argument at hand. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 702_lf
whatever is is right acquiescence, better the devil you know than the devil you don't, deal with it, default bias, get used to it, if it ain't broke don't fix it, it is what it is, let it be let it be, making one's peace with the situation, normalization of evil, this is the best of all possible worlds, this is the only possible world The fallacy that just because something is the current state that is therefore the preferred state.  Opposite of: nihilism. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 703_lf
time inconsistency dynamic inconsistency, time inconsistency A scenario in which "a decision-maker's preferences change over time in such a way that a preference can become inconsistent at another point in time".  See also: current moment bias, hyperbiolic discounting, present bias. [6], [21] 2024-06-12 2024-07-07 704_cb
attribution error attribution error, fundamental attribution error, self justification A tendency to assume that others' (poor) behavior results from character defects (personality) while under-emphasizing the influence of the situation on others' behavior, while, at the same time, one's own behavior is held to be due to environmental factors (situtation).  A "corrupt argument from ethos".  Obverse is: self debasement, self deprecation.  See also: group attribution error, ultimate attribution error. [3], [6] 2024-06-12 2024-07-10 705_lf
bandwagon argument from common sense, argument to the people, argumentum ad populum, appeal to popular opinion, bandwagon, bandwagon fallacy A fallacy claiming that something is true because it is believed by most people (or by "everyone," "the people," "the majority" or "someone in power who has widespread backing").  A fallacy of relevance.  Sub-approaches can include bandwagon ("everyone's doing it"); patriotic ("it is patriotic"); snob "the best people are doing it"; and covering oneself with the cross ("it's Christian").  Can include: lying with statistics.  A modern form is: information cascade. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 706_lf
be grateful for what you've got be grateful for what you've got, worst negates the bad A fallacy in which it is claimed that "an objectively bad situation somehow isn't so bad simply because it could have been far worse, or because someone, somewhere has it even worse". [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 707_lf
Texas sharpshooter fallacy A fallacy in which "differences in data are ignored, but similarities are overemphasized".  An "informal fallacy". [22] 2024-06-12 2024-07-08 708_
better safe than sorry an abundance of caution, better to prevent than to lament, just in case A fallacy of pessimism with reasoning based on a far-fetched, unlikely, or even entirely imaginary worst-case scenario isntead of being based on reality. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-14 709_lf
better the devil you know than the devil you don't acquiescence, better the devil you know than the devil you don't, deal with it, default bias, get used to it, if it ain't broke don't fix it, it is what it is, let it be let it be, making one's peace with the situation, normalization of evil, this is the best of all possible worlds, whatever is is right The fallacy that just because something is the current state that is therefore the preferred state.  Opposite of: nihilism. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 710_lf
better to prevent than to lament an abundance of caution, better safe than sorry, just in case A fallacy of pessimism with reasoning based on a far-fetched, unlikely, or even entirely imaginary worst-case scenario isntead of being based on reality. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-14 711_lf
self fooling self deception, self fooling 2024-06-12 2024-07-08 712_lf
blamecasting blamecasting, scapegoating A fallacy in which there is always someone else to blame than oneself when anything goes wrong.  For scapegoating, the blamed entity is typically "other" or marginalized in some way already. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 713_lf
bleeding heart bleeding heart, drama queen or drama king fallacy, pathetic fallacy, playing on emotion, sob story A fallacy in which, ignoring facts, emotion is evoked alone.  A fallacy "of pure argument from pathos".  The opposite is: apathetic fallacy, burnout, compassion fatigue, cynicism.  An obverse is: refinement, real feelings.  See also: othering. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 714_lf
in-group-out-group bias group-serving bias, intergroup bias, in-group bias, in-group favoritism, in-group-out-group bias, in-group preference A tendency to favor members of a social group to which one blogs over people who are not members of that social group. [6], [23] 2024-06-12 2024-07-10 715_cb
bogeyman fallacy appeal to fear, bogeyman fallacy, paranoia, scare tactics, shockdoc, shock doctrine, rally 'round the flag, rally 'round the president A fallacy in which one takes "advantage of a emergent or deliberately-created crisis and its associated public shock, panic and chaos in order to impose an argument, action or solution that would be clearly unacceptable if carefully considered".  A "corrupted argument from pathos".  A form of playing on emotions.  See also: shopping hungry fallacy, dog-whistle politics, we have to do something, worst-case fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 716_lf
in-group preference group-serving bias, intergroup bias, in-group bias, in-group favoritism, in-group-out-group bias, in-group preference A tendency to favor members of a social group to which one blogs over people who are not members of that social group. [6], [23] 2024-06-12 2024-07-10 717_cb
brave heretic brave heretic, conspiracy theories, iconoclastic fallacy, romantic rebel, truthout fallacy, truthdig fallacy A fallacy of holding a claim as true just because that position "is supposedly standing up heroically to the dominant orthodoxy, the current standard model, conventional wisdom or political correctness, or whatever may be the bandwagon of the moment".  A corrupt argument from ethos.  The opposite of: bandwagon fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 718_lf
broken windows policing broken windows policing, disproportionate response, even one is too many, judenrein, exemplary punishment, zero risk bias A fallacy of "declaring an 'emergency' and promising to disregard justice and due process and devote unlimited resources (and occasionally, unlimited cruelty) to stamp out a limited, insignificant or even nonexistent problem".  A "corrupt and cynical argument from pathos".  "Almost always politically driven."  A "sinister" form of dog whistle politics.  An example of: we have to do something (placebo effect, political theater, security theater, we have to send a message). [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 719_lf
bullying appeal to force, argument from force, argument from strength, argument from the club (stick), argumentum ad baculum, bullying, fascism, hard power, might-makes-right, muscular leadership, non-negotiable demands, power-play, resolution by force of arms, shock and awe A fallacy in which a conclusion is reached due to force, threat of force, or threat of unpleasantness.  A fallacy of relevance, since reason for conclusion is not relevant to the argument at hand. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 720_lf
bureaucratic passive bureaucratic passive, passive voice fallacy An obverse is: be-verb fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 721_lf
burnout apathetic fallacy, compassion fatigue, cynicism The fallacy in which legitimate arguments are ignored due claimed lack of caring. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-15 722_lf
by any means necessary accomplish the mission, find a way, I don't care how you do it, just do it An argumentum ad baculum (argument from force) that implies arriving at an outcome by aside morality. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-13 723_lf
compartmentalization [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 724_lf
compassion fatigue apathetic fallacy, burnout, cynicism The fallacy in which legitimate arguments are ignored due claimed lack of caring. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-15 725_lf
con artist's fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 726_lf
conspiracy theories brave heretic, conspiracy theories, iconoclastic fallacy, romantic rebel, truthout fallacy, truthdig fallacy A fallacy of holding a claim as true just because that position "is supposedly standing up heroically to the dominant orthodoxy, the current standard model, conventional wisdom or political correctness, or whatever may be the bandwagon of the moment".  A corrupt argument from ethos.  The opposite of: bandwagon fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 727_lf
control voice [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 728_lf
crocodile's tears [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 729_lf
crowdsourcing [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 730_lf
cynicism apathetic fallacy, burnout, compassion fatigue See also: pessimism bias. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-15 731_lf
dacoit's fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 732_lf
deal with it acquiescence, better the devil you know than the devil you don't, deal with it, default bias, get used to it, if it ain't broke don't fix it, it is what it is, let it be let it be, making one's peace with the situation, normalization of evil, this is the best of all possible worlds, whatever is is right The fallacy that just because something is the current state that is therefore the preferred state.  Opposite of: nihilism. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 733_lf
devil quotes scripture faulty use of quotes [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-21 734_lf
die away [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 735_lf
die away ye old forms and logic [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 736_lf
differance [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 737_lf
disproportionate response broken windows policing, disproportionate response, even one is too many, judenrein, exemplary punishment, zero risk bias A fallacy of "declaring an 'emergency' and promising to disregard justice and due process and devote unlimited resources (and occasionally, unlimited cruelty) to stamp out a limited, insignificant or even nonexistent problem".  A "corrupt and cynical argument from pathos".  "Almost always politically driven."  A "sinister" form of dog whistle politics.  An example of: we have to do something (placebo effect, political theater, security theater, we have to send a message). [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 738_lf
distraction [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 739_lf
dogmatism [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 740_lf
domino theory camel's nose fallacy, domino theory, slippery slope A fallacy holding that "one thing inevitably leads to another" when this is not necessarily the case.  A non sequitur.  A component fallacy. [1], [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 741_lf
don't fix it [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 742_lf
drama queen or drama king fallacy bleeding heart, drama queen or drama king fallacy, pathetic fallacy, playing on emotion, sob story A fallacy in which, ignoring facts, emotion is evoked alone.  A fallacy "of pure argument from pathos".  The opposite is: apathetic fallacy, burnout, compassion fatigue, cynicism.  An obverse is: refinement, real feelings.  See also: othering. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 743_lf
eminence-based practice eminence-based practice, falacia ad verecundiam, faulty use of authority, questionable authority, star power, testimonial A fallacy in which arguments "are granted fame and validity or condemed to obscurity soley by whoever may be the reigning stars or premier journals of the profession or discpline at the moment". A "corrupt argument from ethos".  Includes: faulty use of quotes. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-21 744_lf
emotional reasoning [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 745_lf
epistemically closed systems [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 746_lf
even one is too many broken windows policing, disproportionate response, even one is too many, judenrein, exemplary punishment, zero risk bias A fallacy of "declaring an 'emergency' and promising to disregard justice and due process and devote unlimited resources (and occasionally, unlimited cruelty) to stamp out a limited, insignificant or even nonexistent problem".  A "corrupt and cynical argument from pathos".  "Almost always politically driven."  A "sinister" form of dog whistle politics.  An example of: we have to do something (placebo effect, political theater, security theater, we have to send a message). [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 747_lf
every revolution ends up eating its own young [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 748_lf
executive summary [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 749_lf
exemplary punishment broken windows policing, disproportionate response, even one is too many, judenrein, exemplary punishment, zero risk bias A fallacy of "declaring an 'emergency' and promising to disregard justice and due process and devote unlimited resources (and occasionally, unlimited cruelty) to stamp out a limited, insignificant or even nonexistent problem".  A "corrupt and cynical argument from pathos".  "Almost always politically driven."  A "sinister" form of dog whistle politics.  An example of: we have to do something (placebo effect, political theater, security theater, we have to send a message). [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 750_lf
expect a miracle [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 751_lf
fable [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 752_lf
fake news [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 753_lf
falacia ad temperantiam [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 754_lf
falacia ad verbosium [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 755_lf
falacia ad verecundiam eminence-based practice, falacia ad verecundiam, faulty use of authority, questionable authority, star power, testimonial A fallacy in which arguments "are granted fame and validity or condemed to obscurity soley by whoever may be the reigning stars or premier journals of the profession or discpline at the moment". A "corrupt argument from ethos".  Includes: faulty use of quotes. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-21 756_lf
fallacy of speculation [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 757_lf
fascism appeal to force, argument from force, argument from strength, argument from the club (stick), argumentum ad baculum, bullying, fascism, hard power, might-makes-right, muscular leadership, non-negotiable demands, power-play, resolution by force of arms, shock and awe A fallacy in which a conclusion is reached due to force, threat of force, or threat of unpleasantness.  A fallacy of relevance, since reason for conclusion is not relevant to the argument at hand. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 758_lf
faulty use of authority eminence-based practice, falacia ad verecundiam, faulty use of authority, questionable authority, star power, testimonial A fallacy in which arguments "are granted fame and validity or condemed to obscurity soley by whoever may be the reigning stars or premier journals of the profession or discpline at the moment". A "corrupt argument from ethos".  Includes: faulty use of quotes. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-21 759_lf
financial incentive bribery, financial incentive, material incentive, material persuasion A fallacy of obtaining a position through "gifts or favors".  Often does not stick unless bribes continue.  The reverse of: argumentum ad baculum, appeal to force, argument from the club (stick), argument from force, might-makes-right.  See also: appeasement, assertiveness, I know my rights, squeaky wheel gets the grease. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-26 760_lf
for my friends any thing [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 761_lf
get used to it acquiescence, better the devil you know than the devil you don't, deal with it, default bias, get used to it, if it ain't broke don't fix it, it is what it is, let it be let it be, making one's peace with the situation, normalization of evil, this is the best of all possible worlds, whatever is is right The fallacy that just because something is the current state that is therefore the preferred state.  Opposite of: nihilism. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 762_lf
getting even [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 763_lf
good simpleton [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 764_lf
grit [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 765_lf
hard power appeal to force, argument from force, argument from strength, argument from the club (stick), argumentum ad baculum, bullying, fascism, hard power, might-makes-right, muscular leadership, non-negotiable demands, power-play, resolution by force of arms, shock and awe A fallacy in which a conclusion is reached due to force, threat of force, or threat of unpleasantness.  A fallacy of relevance, since reason for conclusion is not relevant to the argument at hand. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 766_lf
hasty conclusion [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 767_lf
hear no evil see no evil speak no evil [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 768_lf
heart of darkness syndrome heart of darkness syndrome, I think we're alone now, nobody will ever know, what happens in Vegas stays in Vegas A fallacy holding that "one may freely commit immoral, selfish, negative or evil acts at will without expecting any of the normal consequences or punishment" "just because nobody important is looking (or because one is on vacation, or away in college, or overseas)".  A counterpart to: appeal to privacy, mind your own business, MYOB, none of yer beeswax, so what, you're not the boss of me [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-26 769_lf
homophily [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 770_lf
humanitarian crisis [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 771_lf
iconoclastic fallacy brave heretic, conspiracy theories, iconoclastic fallacy, romantic rebel, truthout fallacy, truthdig fallacy A fallacy of holding a claim as true just because that position "is supposedly standing up heroically to the dominant orthodoxy, the current standard model, conventional wisdom or political correctness, or whatever may be the bandwagon of the moment".  A corrupt argument from ethos.  The opposite of: bandwagon fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 772_lf
identity politics [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 773_lf
if it ain't broke don't fix it acquiescence, better the devil you know than the devil you don't, deal with it, default bias, get used to it, if it ain't broke don't fix it, it is what it is, let it be let it be, making one's peace with the situation, normalization of evil, this is the best of all possible worlds, whatever is is right The fallacy that just because something is the current state that is therefore the preferred state.  Opposite of: nihilism. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 774_lf
incomplete information card stacking, half truth, incomplete information, stacking the deck A fallacy of ignoring examples or evidence that disprove one's point and instead only listing examples or sharing evidence which would support one's point.  A fallacy of omission.  A "corrupt argument from logos".  Different from: straw man.  See also: confirmation bias, hasty generalization. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 775_lf
infortainment [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 776_lf
infowars [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 777_lf
judenrein broken windows policing, disproportionate response, even one is too many, judenrein, exemplary punishment, zero risk bias A fallacy of "declaring an 'emergency' and promising to disregard justice and due process and devote unlimited resources (and occasionally, unlimited cruelty) to stamp out a limited, insignificant or even nonexistent problem".  A "corrupt and cynical argument from pathos".  "Almost always politically driven."  A "sinister" form of dog whistle politics.  An example of: we have to do something (placebo effect, political theater, security theater, we have to send a message). [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 778_lf
jumping to a conclusion [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 779_lf
just in case just in case A fallacy of pessimism with reasoning based on a far-fetched, unlikely, or even entirely imaginary worst-case scenario isntead of being based on reality. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-14 780_lf
karma is a bi**h [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 781_lf
keep it short and simple (KISS) [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 782_lf
keep it simple stupid (KISS) [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 783_lf
keeping up standards [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 784_lf
knowing full well [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 785_lf
let it be [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 786_lf
let it be let it be acquiescence, better the devil you know than the devil you don't, deal with it, default bias, get used to it, if it ain't broke don't fix it, it is what it is, let it be let it be, making one's peace with the situation, normalization of evil, this is the best of all possible worlds, whatever is is right The fallacy that just because something is the current state that is therefore the preferred state.  Opposite of: nihilism. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 787_lf
let the facts speak for themselves [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 788_lf
letting off steam [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 789_lf
lock'em up and throw away the key [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 790_lf
loose lips [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 791_lf
lost cause [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 792_lf
magic of the market [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 793_lf
making one's peace with the situation acquiescence, better the devil you know than the devil you don't, deal with it, default bias, get used to it, if it ain't broke don't fix it, it is what it is, let it be let it be, making one's peace with the situation, normalization of evil, this is the best of all possible worlds, whatever is is right The fallacy that just because something is the current state that is therefore the preferred state.  Opposite of: nihilism. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 794_lf
making peace with one's situation [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 795_lf
marginalization of the adversary [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 796_lf
material incentive bribery, financial incentive, material incentive, material persuasion A fallacy of obtaining a position through "gifts or favors".  Often does not stick unless bribes continue.  The reverse of: argumentum ad baculum, appeal to force, argument from the club (stick), argument from force, might-makes-right.  See also: appeasement, assertiveness, I know my rights, squeaky wheel gets the grease. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-26 797_lf
material persuasion bribery, financial incentive, material incentive, material persuasion A fallacy of obtaining a position through "gifts or favors".  Often does not stick unless bribes continue.  The reverse of: argumentum ad baculum, appeal to force, argument from the club (stick), argument from force, might-makes-right.  See also: appeasement, assertiveness, I know my rights, squeaky wheel gets the grease. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-26 798_lf
merological fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 799_lf
mind your own business appeal to privacy, mind your own business, MYOB, none of yer beeswax, so what, you're not the boss of me A fallacy of preventing discussion of one's point by "drawing a phony curtian of privacy around oneself and one's actions".  A counterpart is: heart of darkness syndrome, I think we're alone now, nobody will ever know, what happens in Vegas stays in Vegas. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-26 800_lf
missing link fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 801_lf
mistaking the map for the territory [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 802_lf
monocausal fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 803_lf
mother nature [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 804_lf
muscular foreign policy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 805_lf
muscular leadership appeal to force, argument from force, argument from strength, argument from the club (stick), argumentum ad baculum, bullying, fascism, hard power, might-makes-right, muscular leadership, non-negotiable demands, power-play, resolution by force of arms, shock and awe A fallacy in which a conclusion is reached due to force, threat of force, or threat of unpleasantness.  A fallacy of relevance, since reason for conclusion is not relevant to the argument at hand. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 806_lf
mystagogy argument from mystery, argumentum ad mysteriam, mystagogy A fallacy in which some "facts, evidence, practices or arguments" gain weight due to a "quasi-hypnotic effect" that "can often persuade more strongly than any logical argument" derived from special sounds, postures, clothing, rituals, recitations, chants, ancient languages, or other effects introducing a sense of the unknown.  Example: long ago and far away.  See also: esoteric knowledge.  An obverse: standard version fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 807_lf
nirvana fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 808_lf
no negotiation [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 809_lf
noble effort [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 810_lf
non-negotiable demands appeal to force, argument from force, argument from strength, argument from the club (stick), argumentum ad baculum, bullying, fascism, hard power, might-makes-right, muscular leadership, non-negotiable demands, power-play, resolution by force of arms, shock and awe A fallacy in which a conclusion is reached due to force, threat of force, or threat of unpleasantness.  A fallacy of relevance, since reason for conclusion is not relevant to the argument at hand. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 811_lf
noncooperation [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 812_lf
none at all is even better [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 813_lf
none of yer beeswax appeal to privacy, mind your own business, MYOB, none of yer beeswax, so what, you're not the boss of me A fallacy of preventing discussion of one's point by "drawing a phony curtian of privacy around oneself and one's actions".  A counterpart is: heart of darkness syndrome, I think we're alone now, nobody will ever know, what happens in Vegas stays in Vegas. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-26 814_lf
nonviolent civil disobedience [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 815_lf
normalization of evil acquiescence, better the devil you know than the devil you don't, deal with it, default bias, get used to it, if it ain't broke don't fix it, it is what it is, let it be let it be, making one's peace with the situation, normalization of evil, this is the best of all possible worlds, whatever is is right The fallacy that just because something is the current state that is therefore the preferred state.  Opposite of: nihilism. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 816_lf
not in my back yard [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 817_lf
obscurationism [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 818_lf
occasionally extended even to their pets! [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 819_lf
ostrich strategy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 820_lf
otherizing [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 821_lf
oversimplifying [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 822_lf
paranoia appeal to fear, bogeyman fallacy, paranoia, scare tactics, shockdoc, shock doctrine, rally 'round the flag, rally 'round the president A fallacy in which one takes "advantage of a emergent or deliberately-created crisis and its associated public shock, panic and chaos in order to impose an argument, action or solution that would be clearly unacceptable if carefully considered".  A "corrupted argument from pathos".  A form of playing on emotions.  See also: shopping hungry fallacy, dog-whistle politics, we have to do something, worst-case fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 823_lf
pathetic fallacy bleeding heart, drama queen or drama king fallacy, pathetic fallacy, playing on emotion, sob story A fallacy in which, ignoring facts, emotion is evoked alone.  A fallacy "of pure argument from pathos".  The opposite is: apathetic fallacy, burnout, compassion fatigue, cynicism.  An obverse is: refinement, real feelings.  See also: othering. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 824_lf
peace through strength [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 825_lf
perfect is the enemy of the good [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 826_lf
placebo effect [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 827_lf
strawman straw man, straw man argument, strawman [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-10 828_lf
plus ca change plus c'est la meme chose the more things change the more they stay the same Literally, "the more things change, the more they stay the same" [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-07 829_lf
political theater [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 830_lf
pollyanna principle fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 831_lf
post hoc ergo propter hoc post hoc argument, post hoc propter hoc, post hoc ergo propter hoc, too much of a coincidence, clustering illusion A "classic paranoiac fallacy of attributing an imaginary causality to random coincidences, concluding that just because something happens close to, at the same time as, or just after something else, the first thing is caused by the second".  See also: cum hoc ergo propter hoc, correlation implies causation. [3], [6] 2024-06-12 2024-07-05 832_lf
post hoc propter hoc post hoc argument, post hoc propter hoc, post hoc ergo propter hoc, too much of a coincidence, clustering illusion A "classic paranoiac fallacy of attributing an imaginary causality to random coincidences, concluding that just because something happens close to, at the same time as, or just after something else, the first thing is caused by the second".  See also: cum hoc ergo propter hoc, correlation implies causation. [3], [6] 2024-06-12 2024-07-05 833_lf
poster child [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 834_lf
power-play appeal to force, argument from force, argument from strength, argument from the club (stick), argumentum ad baculum, bullying, fascism, hard power, might-makes-right, muscular leadership, non-negotiable demands, power-play, resolution by force of arms, shock and awe A fallacy in which a conclusion is reached due to force, threat of force, or threat of unpleasantness.  A fallacy of relevance, since reason for conclusion is not relevant to the argument at hand. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 835_lf
prejudice [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 836_lf
procrastination [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 837_lf
proof texting [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 838_lf
prosopography [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 839_lf
questionable authority eminence-based practice, falacia ad verecundiam, faulty use of authority, questionable authority, star power, testimonial A fallacy in which arguments "are granted fame and validity or condemed to obscurity soley by whoever may be the reigning stars or premier journals of the profession or discpline at the moment". A "corrupt argument from ethos".  Includes: faulty use of quotes. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-21 840_lf
questioning motives argument from motives, questioning motives A fallacy of claiming a point to be false simply on account of improper or evil motives of the person making the claim.  See also: moral licensing. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-28 841_lf
racism [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 842_lf
rally 'round the flag appeal to fear, bogeyman fallacy, paranoia, scare tactics, shockdoc, shock doctrine, rally 'round the flag, rally 'round the president A fallacy in which one takes "advantage of a emergent or deliberately-created crisis and its associated public shock, panic and chaos in order to impose an argument, action or solution that would be clearly unacceptable if carefully considered".  A "corrupted argument from pathos".  A form of playing on emotions.  See also: shopping hungry fallacy, dog-whistle politics, we have to do something, worst-case fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 843_lf
rally 'round the president appeal to fear, bogeyman fallacy, paranoia, scare tactics, shockdoc, shock doctrine, rally 'round the flag, rally 'round the president A fallacy in which one takes "advantage of a emergent or deliberately-created crisis and its associated public shock, panic and chaos in order to impose an argument, action or solution that would be clearly unacceptable if carefully considered".  A "corrupted argument from pathos".  A form of playing on emotions.  See also: shopping hungry fallacy, dog-whistle politics, we have to do something, worst-case fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 844_lf
rationalization [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 845_lf
reading the roll of martyrs [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 846_lf
reciting the litany [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 847_lf
resilience doctrine [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 848_lf
resolution by force of arms appeal to force, argument from force, argument from strength, argument from the club (stick), argumentum ad baculum, bullying, fascism, hard power, might-makes-right, muscular leadership, non-negotiable demands, power-play, resolution by force of arms, shock and awe A fallacy in which a conclusion is reached due to force, threat of force, or threat of unpleasantness.  A fallacy of relevance, since reason for conclusion is not relevant to the argument at hand. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 849_lf
root for the underdog [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 850_lf
security theater [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 851_lf
seen it all before [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 852_lf
shock and awe appeal to force, argument from force, argument from strength, argument from the club (stick), argumentum ad baculum, bullying, fascism, hard power, might-makes-right, muscular leadership, non-negotiable demands, power-play, resolution by force of arms, shock and awe A fallacy in which a conclusion is reached due to force, threat of force, or threat of unpleasantness.  A fallacy of relevance, since reason for conclusion is not relevant to the argument at hand. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 853_lf
shock doctrine appeal to fear, bogeyman fallacy, paranoia, scare tactics, shockdoc, shock doctrine, rally 'round the flag, rally 'round the president A fallacy in which one takes "advantage of a emergent or deliberately-created crisis and its associated public shock, panic and chaos in order to impose an argument, action or solution that would be clearly unacceptable if carefully considered".  A "corrupted argument from pathos".  A form of playing on emotions.  See also: shopping hungry fallacy, dog-whistle politics, we have to do something, worst-case fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 854_lf
shockdoc appeal to fear, bogeyman fallacy, paranoia, scare tactics, shockdoc, shock doctrine, rally 'round the flag, rally 'round the president A fallacy in which one takes "advantage of a emergent or deliberately-created crisis and its associated public shock, panic and chaos in order to impose an argument, action or solution that would be clearly unacceptable if carefully considered".  A "corrupted argument from pathos".  A form of playing on emotions.  See also: shopping hungry fallacy, dog-whistle politics, we have to do something, worst-case fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 855_lf
silent treatment [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 856_lf
simple truth fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 857_lf
sin of presumption [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 858_lf
singing kumbaya [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 859_lf
sloganeering [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 860_lf
snowing them under [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 861_lf
sob story bleeding heart, drama queen or drama king fallacy, pathetic fallacy, playing on emotion, sob story A fallacy in which, ignoring facts, emotion is evoked alone.  A fallacy "of pure argument from pathos".  The opposite is: apathetic fallacy, burnout, compassion fatigue, cynicism.  An obverse is: refinement, real feelings.  See also: othering. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 862_lf
someone's going to win and it might as well be you An obverse of: Hoyle's fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-05 863_lf
sophism arguing in bad faith, mala fides, sophism A fallacy of putting forth an argument that the argue knows is invalid.  Includes: motivational truth, demagogy, campaign promises, self deception, whistling by the graveyward. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-26 864_lf
speak no evil [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 865_lf
standardization [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 866_lf
straw figure [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 867_lf
straw person [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 868_lf
surprise surprise [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 869_lf
take names and kick butt [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 870_lf
teach the controversy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 871_lf
team player [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 872_lf
tear it all down [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 873_lf
tell me what were their names [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 874_lf
the judicial surprise [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 875_lf
the nose knows [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 876_lf
the politics of the center [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 877_lf
the squeaky wheel gets the grease [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 878_lf
there is no alternative [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 879_lf
they're all liars [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 880_lf
they're just like us [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 881_lf
they're not like us [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 882_lf
thinking with your other head [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 883_lf
three monkeys' fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 884_lf
totus pro partes fallacy [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 885_lf
trust your feelings [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 886_lf
trust your heart [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 887_lf
trust your instincts [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 888_lf
trust your intuition [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 889_lf
truthdig fallacy brave heretic, conspiracy theories, iconoclastic fallacy, romantic rebel, truthout fallacy, truthdig fallacy A fallacy of holding a claim as true just because that position "is supposedly standing up heroically to the dominant orthodoxy, the current standard model, conventional wisdom or political correctness, or whatever may be the bandwagon of the moment".  A corrupt argument from ethos.  The opposite of: bandwagon fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 890_lf
truthout fallacy brave heretic, conspiracy theories, iconoclastic fallacy, romantic rebel, truthout fallacy, truthdig fallacy A fallacy of holding a claim as true just because that position "is supposedly standing up heroically to the dominant orthodoxy, the current standard model, conventional wisdom or political correctness, or whatever may be the bandwagon of the moment".  A corrupt argument from ethos.  The opposite of: bandwagon fallacy. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 891_lf
two wrongs make a right [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 892_lf
underlying meaning etymological fallacy, underlying meaning A fallacy of "drawing false conclusions from the...linguistic origins of a current word" or the "alleged meanings or associations of that word in another langauge".  "A fallacy of logos."" [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-06 893_lf
uniformitarianism [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 894_lf
uniformity [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 895_lf
values [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 896_lf
we can't afford to take chances [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 897_lf
we do it too [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 898_lf
what goes around comes around [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 899_lf
what happens in Vegas stays in Vegas heart of darkness syndrome, I think we're alone now, nobody will ever know, what happens in Vegas stays in Vegas A fallacy holding that "one may freely commit immoral, selfish, negative or evil acts at will without expecting any of the normal consequences or punishment" "just because nobody important is looking (or because one is on vacation, or away in college, or overseas)".  A counterpart to: appeal to privacy, mind your own business, MYOB, none of yer beeswax, so what, you're not the boss of me [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-26 900_lf
what were their names [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 901_lf
willful ignorance [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 902_lf
focalism A tendency to rely too much on one particular thing (often the first available thing) when considering a decision.  See also: common source bias, conservatism bias, functional fixedness, law of the instrument.  See also: anchoring bias, attention bias, attentional bias, availability bias, availability heuristic. [6] 2024-06-12 2024-07-02 903_cb
xenophobia [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 904_lf
you do it too [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 905_lf
you need to know [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-12 906_lf
you're not the boss of me appeal to privacy, mind your own business, MYOB, none of yer beeswax, so what, you're not the boss of me A fallacy of preventing discussion of one's point by "drawing a phony curtian of privacy around oneself and one's actions".  A counterpart is: heart of darkness syndrome, I think we're alone now, nobody will ever know, what happens in Vegas stays in Vegas.  [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-26 907_lf
zero risk bias broken windows policing, disproportionate response, even one is too many, judenrein, exemplary punishment, zero risk bias A fallacy of "declaring an 'emergency' and promising to disregard justice and due process and devote unlimited resources (and occasionally, unlimited cruelty) to stamp out a limited, insignificant or even nonexistent problem".  A "corrupt and cynical argument from pathos".  "Almost always politically driven."  A "sinister" form of dog whistle politics.  An example of: we have to do something (placebo effect, political theater, security theater, we have to send a message). [3] 2024-06-12 2024-07-03 908_lf
find a way accomplish the mission, by any means necessary, just do it, I don't care how you do it An argumentum ad baculum (argument from force) that implies arriving at an outcome by aside morality. [3] 2024-06-12 2024-06-13 909_lf
appeal to force appeal to force, argument from force, argument from strength, argument from the club (stick), argumentum ad baculum, bullying, fascism, hard power, might-makes-right, muscular leadership, non-negotiable demands, power-play, resolution by force of arms, shock and awe A fallacy in which a conclusion is reached due to force, threat of force, or threat of unpleasantness.  A fallacy of relevance, since reason for conclusion is not relevant to the argument at hand. [1], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 001_lf
personal attack ad hominem argument, argumentum ad hominem, argument toward the man, attacking the person, poisoning the well Arguing against the opposing party instead of the reasoning given by the opposing party. This might question the intelligence, credentials, or character of the opposition. A "corrupted negative argument from ethos". Subcategories include abusive and circumstantial types. A fallacy of relevance. The opposite of star power. An obverse is token endorsement. See also: guilt by association. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-13 002_lf
argumentum ad populum argument from common sense, argument to the people, argumentum ad populum, appeal to popular opinion, bandwagon, bandwagon fallacy A fallacy claiming that something is true because it is believed by most people (or by "everyone," "the people," "the majority" or "someone in power who has widespread backing").  A fallacy of relevance.  Sub-approaches can include bandwagon ("everyone's doing it"); patriotic ("it is patriotic"); snob "the best people are doing it"; and covering oneself with the cross ("it's Christian").  Can include: lying with statistics.  A modern form is: information cascade. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 003_lf
genetic fallacy A fallacy of claiming something as untrustworthy due to its "racial, geographic, or ethnic origin".  A fallacy of relevance.  Related to ad hominem, personal attack. [1] 2024-06-11 2024-06-21 004_lf
appeal to tradition appeal to tradition, argumentum ad traditionem, argumentum ad antiquitatem, back in those good times, conservative bias, good old days A fallacy of holding a position as correct or a thing (scenario or deed) as good because it has always been that way or was that way long ago (and might still "serve one particular group very well").  A fallacy of relevance.  A "corrupted argument from ethos" (from the past).  Often related in time to the audience's young years, but not prior.  Opposite of: appeal to novelty, bad old days, early adopter's fallacy, pro-innovation bias, recency bias. [1], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-26 005_lf
appeal to improper authority argument from modesty, appeal to authority, appeal to improper authority, argumentum ad verecundium, argument from that which is improper A fallacy of not "evaluating the...argument on its own merits" and instead simply accepting the conclusion of an individual who may be an expert in a field but whose expertise is unrelated to the argument. A specific form of appeal to improper authority. A subcategory is appeal to biased authority. A fallacy of relevance. [1], [2] 2024-06-11 2024-06-21 006_lf
appeal to emotion affective fallacy, appeal to emotion, appeal to pity, argument from pity, argumentum ad misericordiam, emotion over reflection, follow your heart, playing to emotions, romantic fallacy "An emotional appeal to what should be a logical issue".  "Opposite to this is...chosen emotion fallacy.  Often, "a fallacy of encouragement to root of the underdog regardless of the issues at hand".  "A corrupt argument from pathos."  A fallacy of relevance.  Closely related to angelism.  "Opposite to this is...chosen emotion fallacy."  Opposite of: appeal to rigor. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-24 007_lf
argument from adverse consequences argument from adverse consequences, argument from consequences, outcome bias A fallacy of claiming that something cannot be true because, if it were true, that would be bad or have a negative effect (while in reality the validity of the claim does not actually depend on the positive or negative impact of the claims).  A fallacy of relevance.  (See also: outcome bias.  Do not confuse with: actions have consequences. [1], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-28 008_lf
argument from personal incredulity argument from incredulity, argument from personal incredulity A fallacy of asserting that an argument must not be true just because one personally does not understand it or cannot grasp its technical aspects.  A fallacy of relevance. [1], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-28 009_lf
circular reasoning begging the question, catch 22, circular reasoning, circulus in probando, petitio principii, vicious circle A fallacy in which the same proposition appears as a premise and as a conclusion (sometimes worded in two statements appearing differently enough to make this not very obvious); for example, "A, therefore B." and also "B, therefore A".  Sometimes, begging the question and circular reasoning are used interchangeably and sometimes with a difference--begging the question or petitio principii more specifically assumes as evidence the conclusion they are trying to prove.)  A fallacy of logos.  A component fallacy.  See also: complex question, big lie technique. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 011_lf
begging the question begging the question, catch 22, circular reasoning, circulus in probando, petitio principii, vicious circle A fallacy in which the same proposition appears as a premise and as a conclusion (sometimes worded in two statements appearing differently enough to make this not very obvious); for example, "A, therefore B." and also "B, therefore A".  Sometimes, begging the question and circular reasoning are used interchangeably and sometimes with a difference--begging the question or petitio principii more specifically assumes as evidence the conclusion they are trying to prove.)  A fallacy of logos.  A component fallacy.  See also: complex question, big lie technique. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 010_lf
hasty generalization dicto simpliciter, jumping to conclusions, converse accident One type is Fallacy of Accident.  One type is the Misleading Statistic. A component fallacy. [1], [2] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 012_lf
false cause coincidental correlation, post hoc ergo propter hoc One type is Non Causa Pro Causa or Not the cause for a cause.  One type is Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc or After this, therefore because of this. A component fallacy. [1], [2] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 013_lf
irrelevant conclusion arguing beside the point, ignorantio elenchi, ignoring the issue, irrelevant conclusion A fallacy of switching attention to a different issue (which might be a valid issue but is unrelated to the topic at hand).  A component fallacy.  Similar to: begging the question.  A common form: the red herring.  Another example: tu quoque, and you too. [1], [2] 2024-06-11 2024-06-26 014_lf
straw man argument straw man, straw man argument, strawman A subtype of red herring. A component fallacy. [1], [2] 2024-06-11 2024-07-10 015_lf
non sequitur it does not follow Syllogistic errors include undistributed middle term, non causa pro causa, and gnorantio elenchi. A component fallacy. Common examples are: affirming the consequent, denying the antecedent. [1] 2024-06-11 2024-06-17 016_lf
slippery slope fallacy camel's nose fallacy A fallacy holding that "one thing inevitably leads to another" when this is not necessarily the case.  A non sequitur.  A component fallacy. [1], [2] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 017_lf
either or fallacy all or nothing thinking, bifurcation, black and white fallacy, black/white fallacy, either/or reasoning, excluded middle, false binary, false dichotomy, false dilemma A conclusion is reached based on there only being two possible options, when really the possibilities are not so limited.  A component fallacy. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-14 018_lf
faulty analogy A component fallacy. [1] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 019_lf
undistributed middle term A component fallacy. [1] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 020_lf
contradictory premises Closely related to Special Pleading. A component fallacy. [1] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 021_lf
special pleading big but fallacy, special pleading A fallacy of stating "a generally-accepted principle and then directly negating it with a 'but'.  Often detailed as a special case "supposedly exempt from the usual rules of law, logic, morality, ethics or even credibility".  Closely related to: contradictory premises.  A component fallacy. [1], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 022_lf
equivocation A fallacy of ambiguity. [1] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 023_lf
amphiboly Literally, "indeterminate".  A fallacy in which a conclusion relies on interpreting a sentence to mean one thing, when the inclusion of that sentence as a premise was intended to mean something else.  Possible because some sentences can be read multiple ways with different meanings depending on word usage.  A fallacy of ambiguity.  Compare with: equivocation. [1] 2024-06-11 2024-07-05 024_lf
composition A fallacy of ambiguity.  The opposite of divison. [1] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 025_lf
division A fallacy of ambiguity. [1] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 026_lf
fallacy of reification fallacy of misplaced concreteness A fallacy of ambiguity. [1] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 027_lf
stacking the deck card stacking, half truth, incomplete information, stacking the deck A fallacy of ignoring examples or evidence that disprove one's point and instead only listing examples or sharing evidence which would support one's point.  A fallacy of omission.  A "corrupt argument from logos".  Different from: straw man.  See also: confirmation bias, hasty generalization. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 028_lf
no true Scotsman A fallacy of omission. [1] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 029_lf
argument from the negative argumentum ad ignorantiam Often interchangeable with Argumentum Ad ignorantiam.  A fallacy of omission. [1] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 030_lf
appeal to a lack of evidence appeal to a lack of evidence, appeal to ignorance, argument from ignorance, argumentum ad ignorantiam A fallacy using lack of knowledge to arrive at a conclusion.  One might might say that because a claim cannot be disproven, therefore the opposite must be true.  Or, since we do not know (or cannot know, or cannot prove) something, then it must be true (or false).  A fallacy of omission.  Includes attacking the evidence, whataboutism, and missing link.  See also: a priori argument, appealing to closure, deliberate ignorance, simpleton's fallacy, argumentum ex silentio. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 031_lf
complex question loaded question Often overlaps with Begging the Question.  A fallacy of omission. [1] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 032_lf
appeal to hypocrisy you also See also Tu Quoque. [2] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 033_lf
too much of a coincidence post hoc argument, post hoc propter hoc, post hoc ergo propter hoc, too much of a coincidence, clustering illusion A "classic paranoiac fallacy of attributing an imaginary causality to random coincidences, concluding that just because something happens close to, at the same time as, or just after something else, the first thing is caused by the second".  See also: cum hoc ergo propter hoc, correlation implies causation. [3], [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-05 034_lf
correlation implies causation cum hoc ergo propter hoc, correlation implies causation A fallacy of concluding that one thing causes another just because of their occurring together (at the same time or one after the other) or "solely on the basis of an observed association or correlation between them".  An example of: causal fallacy, false cause, non causa pro causa, non-cause for cause.  See also: post hoc argument, post hoc propter hoc, post hoc ergo propter hoc, too much of a coincidence, clustering illusion. [1], [2], [3], [16], [17], [18] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 035_lf
division The opposite of Composition. [2] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 036_lf
equivocation A fallacy of "knowingly and deliberately using words in a different sense than the one the audience will understand" or "deliberately failing to define one's terms" or for "the same term...using differing meanings" or "using a word in a different way than the author used it in the original premise" or "changing definitions halfway through a discussion".  A fallacy of ambiguity.  Compare with: amphiboly. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-05 037_lf
appeal to biased authority A fallacy of simply accepting the conclusion of an individual who may be an expert in a field but "who may have professional or personal motivations that render his professional judgement suspect". A specific form of appeal to improper authority. [1] 2024-06-11 2024-06-21 038_lf
red herring Examples include Appeal to Emotion, Irrelevant Conclusion, Personal Attack, and Straw Man. [2] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 039_lf
ableism con artist's fallacy, dacoit's fallacy, shearing the sheeple, profiteering, vulture capitalism, wealth is the disease and I am the cure Fallacy saying that those who are less capable therefore are less deserving and therefore can be justifiably victimized due to how nature is. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-12 040_lf
actions have consequences An incorrect assertion (based on some kind of rules) that a punishment for an occurrance is instead a consequence. "A corrupt argument from ethos." (Procedures may result in eventual punishment, but that outcome is not accurately the consequence of the initial event.) [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-13 041_lf
token endorsement Fallacy saying that a positive statement made by an individual with a pertinent characteristic must be true because of their possession of that characteristic. For example, a claim that, just because a member of a minority group states that a person of the majority group is not bigoted against the minority group, that this must therefore be true.  (It is still possible for the statement to be incorrect, despite the group membership of the person making the statement.) [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-13 042_lf
angelism A fallacy of "falsely claiming that one is capable of objective reasoning and judgment without emotion".  In other words, "falsely claiming for oneself a viewpoint of...disinterested objectivity or pretending to place onself far above all...bias."  Related to affective fallacy. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-21 043_lf
chosen emotion fallacy A fallacy in which "one falsely claims complete, or at least reliable prior voluntary control over one's own  autonomic, gut level affective reactions".  Related to but distinct from: angelism.  Opposite to: affective fallacy, appeal to emotion, appeal to pity, argument from pity, argumentum ad misericordiam, emotion over reflection, follow your heart, playing to emotions, romantic fallacy.  See also: mortification. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-05 044_lf
alphabet soup The use of jargon such as acronyms, initialisms, and abbreviations consisting of letters (and possibly numbers) to impress, to build rapport, to confuse, or to obfuscate, ultimately resulting in loss of communication regarding what is being said or why an argument would be valid, and instead relying on potentially invalid shortcuts to reach a conclusion.  See also: name calling. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-14 045_lf
alternative truth alt facts, alternate facts, alternative truth, counterknowledge, disinformation, information pollution A fallacy holding that objective facts and truth cannot really exist, are not durable, or are really subjective.  A "fallacy of logos rooted in postmodernism".  Related to: big lie technique.  See also: gaslighting, blind loyalty, big brain little brain fallacy, two truths. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 046_lf
appeal to closure See also Appeal to a Lack of Evidence, Argument From Adverse Consequences.  Opposite of Paralysis of Analysis. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 047_lf
appeal to heaven American exceptionalism, argumentum ad coelum, Deus vult, Gott mit uns, manifest destiny, special covenant A fallacy based on claiming to know God's mind and wishes, which cannot really be challenged.  A "deluded argument from ethos".  Opposite of Job's comforter fallacy. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-14 048_lf
appeal to nature appeal to nature, biologizing, green fallacy A fallacy that just because something is natural, therefore "it has to be good, healthy, and beneficial".  A "contemporary romantic fallacy of ethos". See also: argument from natural law. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-23 049_lf
appeal to pity affective fallacy, appeal to emotion, appeal to pity, argument from pity, argumentum ad misericordiam, emotion over reflection, follow your heart, playing to emotions, romantic fallacy "An emotional appeal to what should be a logical issue".  "Opposite to this is...chosen emotion fallacy.  Often, "a fallacy of encouragement to root of the underdog regardless of the issues at hand".  "A corrupt argument from pathos."  A fallacy of relevance.  Closely related to angelism.  "Opposite to this is...chosen emotion fallacy."  Opposite of: appeal to rigor. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-24 050_lf
appeal to novelty appeal to novelty, bad old days, early adopter's fallacy, pro-innovation bias, recency bias A fallacy that a view or other thing must be correct or better because it is new or recent. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-21 051_lf
appeasement appeasement, assertiveness, I know my rights, squeaky wheel gets the grease A fallacy of obtaining a result not through argument but through the audience's willingness to give in so that the opposition will simply be satisfied, quieter, or no longer a nuisance.  Common in public agencies, education, and retail.  Sometimes promoted as a practical, nonviolent way for groups to promote change.  See also: bribery. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-26 052_lf
argument from consequences argument from adverse consequences, argument from consequences, outcome bias A fallacy of claiming that something cannot be true because, if it were true, that would be bad or have a negative effect (while in reality the validity of the claim does not actually depend on the positive or negative impact of the claims).  A fallacy of relevance.  (See also: outcome bias.  Do not confuse with: actions have consequences. [1], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-28 053_lf
attacking the evidence See also: appeal to a lack of evidence, appeal to ignorance, argumentum ad ignorantiam, and argument from ignorance. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 054_lf
whataboutism whataboutery, whataboutism See also: appeal to a lack of evidence, appeal to ignorance, argumentum ad ignorantiam, and argument from ignorance. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-10 055_lf
missing link See also: appeal to a lack of evidence, appeal to ignorance, argumentum ad ignorantiam, argument from ignorance. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 056_lf
argument from inertia stay the course A kind of Argument from Consequences, E for Effort, or Appeal to Tradition. See too, Throwing Good Money After Bad. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 057_lf
the argument from motives See too Questioning Motives. A kind of ad hominem. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 058_lf
argumentum ad baculum appeal to force, argument from force, argument from strength, argument from the club (stick), argumentum ad baculum, bullying, fascism, hard power, might-makes-right, muscular leadership, non-negotiable demands, power-play, resolution by force of arms, shock and awe A fallacy in which a conclusion is reached due to force, threat of force, or threat of unpleasantness.  A fallacy of relevance, since reason for conclusion is not relevant to the argument at hand. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 059_lf
argumentum ad mysteriam argument from mystery, argumentum ad mysteriam, mystagogy A fallacy in which some "facts, evidence, practices or arguments" gain weight due to a "quasi-hypnotic effect" that "can often persuade more strongly than any logical argument" derived from special sounds, postures, clothing, rituals, recitations, chants, ancient languages, or other effects introducing a sense of the unknown.  Example: long ago and far away.  See also: esoteric knowledge.  An obverse: standard version fallacy. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 060_lf
argumentum ex silentio argument from silence A fallacy in which it is claimed that, just because the currently available knowledge or evidence cannot prove anything about a claim, therefore this in itself proves that status of the claim as true or false (whereas, really, additional evidence or facts could be sought). [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 061_lf
availability bias availability bias, availability heuristic Related: hyperbole, magnification, catastrophizing.  See also: anchoring bias, attention bias, attentional bias, availability bias, focalism. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 062_lf
big brain little brain big brain little brain, führerprinzip, mad leader disease A fallacy in which a person in a leadership or authority position (a work boss, military commander, or some sort of religious, cult, or group leader) tells people to think not with their little brains (the brain in their head) but instead with their big brain (the leader's brain).  An "extreme example of the blind loyalty fallacy".  Sometimes expressed positively in that the leader takes (moral) responsibilty for decisions.  The opposite is: plausible deniability.  See also: just do it, gaslighting. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 063_lf
regressive bias conservatism bias, regressive bias As a memory cognitive bias, the tendency "to remember high values and high likelihoods/probabilities/frequencies as lower than they actually were and low ones as higher than they actually were" ("memories are not extreme enough"). 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 064_
big lie technique big lie technique, bold faced lie, staying on message A fallacy of "repeating a lie, fallacy, slogan, talking-point, nonsense-statement or deceptive half-truth over and over in different forms (particularly in the media) until it becomes part of daily discourse and people accept it without further proof or evidence".  Notably, "the bolder and more outlandish the big lie becomes the more credible it seems".  See also: alphabet soup, alternative truth; bandwagon fallacy, propaganda, straw man. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 065_lf
blind loyalty blind loyalty, blind obedience, Nuremberg defense, team player appeal, unthinking obedience A fallacy which holds that "an argument or action is right simply and solely because a respected leader or source (a President, expert, one's parents, one's own side, team or country, one's boss or commanding officers) says it is right".  A corrupted argument from ethos.  See also: big brain little brain fallacy, soldiers' honor fallacy. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 066_lf
blood is thicker than water favoritism, compadrismo, for my friends anything Reverse of Ad Hominem. See Identity Fallacy. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 067_lf
brainwashing propaganda, radicalization See also Stockholm Syndrome, Love Bombing, Bribery. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 068_lf
anthropic bias anthropic bias, anthropic principle, anthropic selection effect, observation selection effect The tendency for observations about the universe to only be made when there is someone to observe the data or to do the study.  Subforms include: weak anthropic principle (universe fine tuning being the result of survivorship bias), strong anthropic principle (the universe being compleled to have conscious, sapient life), participatory anthropic principle (the universe must be observed to exist), final anthropic principle (informational processing as inherent to universe existence).  An example of: selection effect. [19], [20] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 069_
complex question A counterpart of Either Or Reasoning. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 070_lf
confirmation bias The cognitive bias and logical fallacy of a tendency to "search for, interpret, focus on and remember information in a way that confirms one's preconceptions".  Includes: backfire effect, congruence effect, experimenter's bias, expectation bias, observer-expectancy effect, selective perception, Semmelweis reflex.  See also: defensiveness, half truth. [3], [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-05 071_cb_lf
cost bias A fallacy in which an expensive thing is regarded more highly than a free or inexpensive thing, "regardless of the item's real quality, utility, or true value to the purchaser".  "A fallacy of ethos (that of a product)." [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-05 072_lf
default bias acquiescence, better the devil you know than the devil you don't, deal with it, default bias, get used to it, if it ain't broke don't fix it, it is what it is, let it be let it be, making one's peace with the situation, normalization of evil, this is the best of all possible worlds, whatever is is right The fallacy that just because something is the current state that is therefore the preferred state.  Opposite of: nihilism. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 073_lf
defensiveness choice-support bias, choice-supportive bias, defensiveness, myside bias A fallacy and bias in which "after one has taken a given decision, commitment or course of action, one automatically tends to defend that decision and to irrationally dismiss opposing options even when one's decision later on proves to be shaky or wrong".  A "fallacy of ethos (one's own)".  See also argument from inertia, confirmation bias. [3], [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-05 074_lf
deliberate ignorance closed-mindedness, motivated ignorance, tuning out, hear no evil speak no evil, three monkeys fallacy, I don't want to hear it See also: Trust Your Gut, Confirmation Bias, Third Person Effect, They’re All Crooks, Simpletons Fallacy, Positive Thinking Fallacy. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 075_lf
disciplinary blinders See also Star Power, Two Truths. Analogous to Denominational Blinders. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 076_lf
dog whistle politics A fallacy in which, instead of addressing, refuting, or listening to arguments, an arguer uses "brief phrases or slogans of the hour" that reflexively "sends one's audience...into a frenzy" such that "any reasoned attempt to more clearly identify, deconstruct, or challenge an opponent's dog whistle appeal results in puzzled confusion at best and wild, irrational fury at worst".  A "fallacy of logos and pathos".  See also: reductionism. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-05 077_lf
draw your own conclusion fallacy non-argument argument, let the facts speak For themselves Related to Leading The Witness Fallacy [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 078_lf
Dunning-Kruger effect A cognitive bias and logical fallacy in which "people of limited skills or knowledge mistakenly believe their abilities are greater than they actually are".  Clarifying notes: "Dunning and Kruger themselves never claimed to show that the unskilled think they're better than the skilled."  "Also, there is a positive correlation between actual performance and perceived performance." [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-05 079_cb_lf
E for effort An example is Waving the Bloody Shirt, the Blood of the Martyrs Fallacy. See also Cost Bias, Solider’s Honor Fallacy, Argument from Inertia. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 080_lf
eschatological fallacy A fallacy that argues that "the world is coming to an end" so therefore some position is reasonable. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-05 081_lf
esoteric knowledge esoteric wisdom, gnosticism, inner truth, inner sanctum, need to know Counterpart is Obscurantism, Willful Ignorance. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 082_lf
essentializing Opposite of Relativizing. See also Red Herring, Appeal to Nature. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 083_lf
etymological fallacy etymological fallacy, underlying meaning A fallacy of "drawing false conclusions from the...linguistic origins of a current word" or the "alleged meanings or associations of that word in another langauge".  "A fallacy of logos."" [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-06 084_lf
excluded middle all or nothing thinking, bifurcation, black and white fallacy, black/white fallacy, either or fallacy, either/or reasoning, excluded middle, false binary, false dichotomy, false dilemma If a little is good, then more must be better.  Or, if less is good, then none is better.  "A corrupted argument from logos".One opposite is excluded outliers.  Another opposite is middle of the road fallacy (falacia ad temperantiam, the politics of the center, marginalization of the adversary).A conclusion is reached based on there only being two possible options, when really the possibilities are not so limited.  A component fallacy. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-14 085_lf
F-bomb cursing, obscenity, profanity Related to Salacious Fallacy. See also Red Herring. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-13 086_lf
false analogy Opposite of Sui Generis Fallacy, Difference. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 087_lf
finish the job Related to Just a Job. See also Blind Loyalty, Soldiers Honor Fallacy, Argument from Inertia. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 088_lf
free speech fallacy An example is the Safe Space or Safe Place. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 089_lf
fundamental attribution error attribution error, fundamental attribution error, self justification A tendency to assume that others' (poor) behavior results from character defects (personality) while under-emphasizing the influence of the situation on others' behavior, while, at the same time, one's own behavior is held to be due to environmental factors (situtation).  A "corrupt argument from ethos".  Obverse is: self debasement, self deprecation.  See also: group attribution error, ultimate attribution error. [3], [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-10 090_cb_lf
gaslighting A fallacy of "denying or invalidating a person's own knowledge and experiences by deliberately twisting or distorting known facts, memories, scenes, events and evidence in order to disorient a vulnerable opponent and to make him or her doubt his/her sanity".  An example is: emotional invalidation. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-05 091_lf
emotional invalidation A fallacy of "questioning, after the fact, the reality or validity of affective [emotional] states, either another's or one's own".  An example of: gaslighting. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-05 092_lf
guilt by association discredit by association A fallacy of trying to argue against a point by "evoking the negative ethos" (the negative charcteristics) of the associations of the opponent (e.g., by way of their professional or social relationships, political party, religion, ethnicity, or other group or institutional memberhip).  An extreme case is: for my enemies nothing. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-16 093_lf
hero busting the perfect is the enemy of the good Used to assist Identity Fallacy. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 094_lf
motte and bailey fallacy motte and bailey doctrine, motte and bailey fallacy A fallacy of conflating two similar positions, one easier to defend and one much more controversial and harder to defend, in which the arguer "advances the controversial position, but when challenged, insists that only the more modest position is being advanced", then claims that the more controversial position has not been refuted.  Ain informal fallacy. [5] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 095_lf
heroes all everybody's a winner, heroes all A fallacy holding that "everyone is above average or extraordinary".  Opposite is: all the king's men.  See also: hero-busting, identity fallacy, perfect is the enemy of good. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 096_lf
Hoyle's fallacy The false assumption that a low-probablility event could never have happened or will never happen.  An obverse: you can't win if you don't play, someone's going to win and it might as well be you. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-05 097_lf
action bias A tendency to act even when there is no problem or when no action would be more effective for the given problem. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-13 098_cb
actor-observer bias A tendency for the description of an actor's behavior to over-emphasize the observer's personality (while under-emphasizing the actor's scenario).  Also, the opposite--a tendency for an actor's description of their own behavior to have the reverse pattern: over-emphasizing their own scenario while under-emphasizing the effect of their own personality. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-13 099_cb
additive bias A tendency to solve problems by adding things (for example, instead of by removing things). [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-13 100_cb
agent detection bias A tendency to assume that an actor is intentionally intervening in a scenario. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-13 101_cb
ambiguity effect A tendency to avoid options with outcomes that have unknown probabilities. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-14 102_cb
anchoring bias focalism A tendency to rely too much on one particular thing (often the first available thing) when considering a decision.  See also: common source bias, conservatism bias, functional fixedness, law of the instrument. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-14 103_cb
anthropocentric thinking A tendency to use analogies about humans when describing other systems.  An availability bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-14 104_cb
anthropomorphism A tendency to describe non-human things as having human traits.  An availability bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-14 105_cb
playing to emotions affective fallacy, appeal to emotion, appeal to pity, argument from pity, argumentum ad misericordiam, emotion over reflection, follow your heart, playing to emotions, romantic fallacy "An emotional appeal to what should be a logical issue".  "Opposite to this is...chosen emotion fallacy.  Often, "a fallacy of encouragement to root of the underdog regardless of the issues at hand".  "A corrupt argument from pathos."  A fallacy of relevance.  Closely related to angelism.  "Opposite to this is...chosen emotion fallacy."  Opposite of: appeal to rigor. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-24 106_cb
apophenia A "tendency to perceive meaningful connections between unrelated things". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-21 107_cb
association fallacy A cognitive bias and formal logical fallacy in which it is asserted that "properties of one thing must also be properties of another thing, if both things belong to the same group".   A social bias.  Includes: authority bias, cheerleader effect, halo effect. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 108_cb_lf
assumed similarity bias A cognitive bias in which one "assumes that others have more traits in common with them than those others actually do".  A social bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 109_cb
attention bias attentional bias A tendency for perception to be influenced by thought repetition.  See also: anchoring bias, availability bias, availability heuristic, focalism. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 110_cb
attribute substitution A cognitive bias in which "a judgment has to be made (of a target attribute) that is computationally complex, and instead a more easily calculated heuristic attribute is substituted" in which the substitution is thought to take place automatically instead of with self-awarene reflection. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 111_cb
authority bias A tendency to "attribute greater accuracy to the opinion of an authority figure (unrelated to its content) and be more influenced by that opinion".  A social bias.  A form of association fallacy. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 112_cb
automation bias A bias in which ones depends too much on automated systems that "can lead to erroneous automated information overriding correct decisions". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 113_cb
availability bias availability bias, availability heuristic A cognitive bias in which one has a greater chance of "recalling recent, nearby, or otherwise immediately available examples", and the assigning of "importance to those examples" over others.  Also, "the natural tendency to give undue attention and importance to information that is immediately available at hand, particularly the first or last information received".  A fallacy of logos.  A memory bias.  Related: hyperbole, magnification, catastrophizing.  See also: anchoring bias, attention bias, attentional bias, focalism.  [3], [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 114_cb
availability cascade A cognitive bias consisting of "a self-reinforcing process in which a collective belief gains more and more plausibility through its increasing repetition in public discourse".  A conformity bias.  A social bias.  See also: availability heuristic. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 115_cb
availability heuristic availability bias, availability heuristic A cognitive bias in which one has a greater chance of "recalling recent, nearby, or otherwise immediately available examples", and the assigning of "importance to those examples" over others.  Also, "the natural tendency to give undue attention and importance to information that is immediately available at hand, particularly the first or last information received".  A fallacy of logos.  A memory bias.  Related: hyperbole, magnification, catastrophizing.  See also: anchoring bias, attention bias, attentional bias, focalism.  [3], [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 116_cb
Baader–Meinhof phenomenon Baader–Meinhof phenomenon, frequency illusion A cognitive bias in which "once something has been noticed, then every instance of that thing is noticed, leading to the belief it has a high frequency of occurrence". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 117_cb
backfire effect A cognitive bias in which one strengthens a prior (e.g., current) belief when coming across evidence to the contrary. (The "disconfirming evidence" has the opposite of its logical effect on the belief-holder.)  A form of confirmation bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 118_cb
bandwagon effect A cognitive bias in which people tend "do (or believe) things because many other people do (or believe) the same".  See also: groupthink and herd behavior as concepts in social psychology. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 119_cb
Barnum effect Barnum effect, Forer effect A tendency "for individuals to give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that supposedly are tailored specifically for them, but are in fact vague and general enough to apply to a wide range of people".  A form of egocentric bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 120_cb
base rate fallacy base rate fallacy, base rate neglect A tendency "to ignore general information and focus on information only pertaining to the specific case, even when the general information is more important".  A form of extension neglect. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 121_cb
belief bias An "effect where someone's evaluation of the logical strength of an argument is biased by the believability of the conclusion".  Categorized as a truth judgement bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 122_cb
Ben Franklin effect An bias in which "a person who has performed a favor for someone is more likely to do another favor for that person than they would be if they had received a favor from that person".  Bias category: cognitive dissonance. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 123_cb
Berkson's paradox A "tendency to misinterpret statistical experiments involving conditional probabilities".  Categorized as a cognitive bias and a logical fallacy. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 124_cb_lf
better-than-average effect better-than-average effect, illusory superiority, Lake Wobegon effect, superiority bias A "tendency to overestimate one's desirable qualities, and underestimate undesirable qualities, relative to other people".  A form of egocentric bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 125_cb
bias blind spot A "tendency to see oneself as less biased than other people, or to be able to identify more cognitive biases in others than in oneself."  A form of egocentric bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 126_cb
bizarreness effect A bias in which "bizarre material is better remembered than common material".  A form of memory bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 127_cb
boundary extension A tendency to remember an image's background as "larger or more expansive" compared with the foreground.  A memory bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 128_cb
cheerleader effect A tendency " for people to appear more attractive in a group than in isolation".  A social bias.  A form of association fallacy. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-05 129_cb
childhood amnesia The tendency to retain few memories from before the age of four.  A memory bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-05 130_cb
choice-supportive bias choice-support bias, choice-supportive bias, defensiveness, myside bias A fallacy in which "after one has taken a given decision, commitment or course of action, one automatically tends to defend that decision and to irrationally dismiss opposing options even when one's decision later on proves to be shaky or wrong".  A "fallacy of ethos (one's own)".  See also argument from inertia, confirmation bias. [3], [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-05 131_cb
chronological snobbery A tendency to consider something (like an idea or argument) from an earlier time as less valid than newer concept on the (not necessarliy true) basis that people in the past were less intelligent.  A from of appeal to novelty. [6], [18] 2024-06-11 2024-07-05 132_cb_lf
clustering illusion post hoc argument, post hoc propter hoc, post hoc ergo propter hoc, too much of a coincidence, clustering illusion A "classic paranoiac fallacy of attributing an imaginary causality to random coincidences, concluding that just because something happens close to, at the same time as, or just after something else, the first thing is caused by the second".  See also: cum hoc ergo propter hoc, correlation implies causation [3], [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-05 133_cb_lf
cognitive dissonance Theoretically, bias reults when "people continually reduce their" "mental disturbance...when...beliefs and actions are inconsistent and contradictory..." "in order to align their cognitions (perceptions of the world) with their actions".  The concept is said to be comprised of 1) the bias of feeling one does not have baises, 2) the bias in which one feels better, smarter, or more moral than average, and 3) confirmation bias. [6], [17] 2024-06-11 2024-07-05 134_cb
common source bias A tendency "to combine or compare research studies from the same source, or from sources that use the same methodologies or data". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-05 135_cb
compassion fade A tendency to "behave more compassionately towards a small number of identifiable victims than to a large number of anonymous ones".  A bias of extension neglect. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-05 136_cb
large-sample bias A tendency for a model based on large samples of data to under-represent, or not represent, valid and important components that only appeared in a small portion of the sampled data. 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 137_
conformity A tendency to fit in regardless of logic.  Forms of conformity bias include: availabilty cascade, bandwagon effect, courtesy bias, groupthink, groupshift, social desirabiltyy bias, truth bias/ [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-06 138_cb
congruence bias A tendency "to test hypotheses exclusively through direct testing, instead of testing possible alternative hypotheses". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-06 139_cb
conjunction fallacy A tendency to "assume that specific conditions are more probable than a more general version of those same conditions". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-06 140_cb
conservatism bias conservatism bias, regressive bias As an anchoring cognitive bias, the tendency "to insufficiently revise one's belief when presented with new evidence".  As a memory cognitive bias, the tendency "to remember high values and high likelihoods/probabilities/frequencies as lower than they actually were and low ones as higher than they actually were" ("memories are not extreme enough") [in this sense also known as regressive bias]. See also, as a logical fallacy: conservative bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 141_cb
context effect The tendency for "out-of-context memories" to be "mopre difficult to retrieve than in-context memories".  A memory bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 142_cb
context neglect bias A tendency to "neglect the human context of technological challenges".  A framing effect bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 143_cb
continued influence effect A tendency for misinformation to "influence memory and reasoning about an event, despite the misinformation having been corrected".  See also: misinformation effect. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 144_cb
contrast effect The "enhancement or reduction of a certain stimulus's perception when compared with a recently observed, contrasting object".  An example of: framing effect. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 145_cb
courtesy bias The tendency to "give an opinion that is more socially correct than one's true opinion, so as to avoid offending anyone".  An example of: conformity. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 146_cb
cross-race effect The tendency "for people of one race to have difficulty identifying members of a race other than their own".  An example of: memory bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 147_cb
cryptomnesia The tendency in which "a memory is mistaken for novel thought or imagination, because there is no subjective experience of it being a memory".  An example of: misattribution of memory. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 148_cb
curse of knowledge A tendency in whcih "better-informed people find it extremely difficult to think about problems from the perspective of lesser-informed people". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 149_cb
current moment bias current moment bias, hyperbolic discounting, present bias A tendency "for people to have a stronger preference for more immediate payoffs relative to later payoffs". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 150_cb
dehumanised perception dehumanised perception, dehumanization As a cognitive bias: a phenomenon of "not attributing feelings or thoughts to another person"; a form of: objectification.  As a logical fallacy: a "faulty analogy where opponents are dismissed as mere cockroaches, lice, apes, monkeys, rats, weasels or bloodsucking parasites who have no right to speak or to live at all, and probably should be squashed like bugs"; opposite of: Polyanna principle, projection bias, singing kumbay, they're just like us; see also: identity fallacy, name calling, olfactory rhetoric. [3], [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 151_cb
declinism A "predisposition to view the past favorably...and future negatively".  See also: rosy retrospection. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 152_cb
decoy effect A phenomenon in which "preferences for either option A or B change in favor of option B when option C is presented, which is completely dominated by option B (inferior in all respects) and partially dominated by option A".  An example of: framing effect. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 153_cb
default effect A tendency "to favor the default option when given a choice between several options". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 154_cb
defensive attribution hypothesis A tendency to "attribute more blame to a harm-doer as the outcome becomes more severe or as personal or situational similarity to the victim increases". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 155_cb
denomination effect A tendency "to spend more money when it is denominated in small amounts (e.g., coins) rather than large amounts (e.g., bills)".  An example of: framing effect. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 156_cb
disposition effect A tendency "sell an asset that has accumulated in value and resist selling an asset that has declined in value". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 157_cb
distinction bias A tendency to "view two options as more dissimilar when evaluating them simultaneously than when evaluating them separately".  An example of: framing effect. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 158_cb
domain neglect bias A trendency "neglect relevant domain knowledge while solving interdisciplinary problems".  An example of: framing effect. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 159_cb
dread aversion The tendency for dread to "double the emotional impact of savouring". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 160_cb
intergroup bias group-serving bias, intergroup bias, in-group bias, in-group favoritism, in-group-out-group bias, in-group preference A tendency to favor members of a social group to which one blogs over people who are not members of that social group. [6], [23] 2024-06-11 2024-07-10 161_cb
duration neglect The "neglect of the duration of an episode in determining its value". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-06 162_cb
dynamic inconsistency dynamic inconsistency, time inconsistency A scenario in which "a decision-maker's preferences change over time in such a way that a preference can become inconsistent at another point in time".  See also: current moment bias, hyperbiolic discounting, present bias [6], [21] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 163_cb
effort justification A tendency to "attribute greater value to an outcome if they had to put effort into achieving it". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 164_cb
egocentric bias A "tendency to rely too heavily on one's own perspective and/or have a different perception of oneself relative to others". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 165_cb
end-of-history illusion A an "age-independent" tendency to "believe that one will change less in the future than one has in the past". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 166_cb
endowment effect A tendency "for people to demand much more to give up an object than they would be willing to pay to acquire it". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 167_cb
escalation of commitment escalation of commitment, irrational escalation, sunk cost fallacy A tendency in which "people justify increased investment in a decision, based on the cumulative prior investment, despite new evidence suggesting that the decision was probably wrong". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 168_cb
euphoric recall A tendency to "remember past experiences in a positive light, while overlooking negative experiences associated with that even".  A type of: memory bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 169_cb
exaggerated expectation A tendency to "expect or predict more extreme outcomes than those outcomes that actually happen". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 170_cb
expectation bias expectation bias, experimenter's bias A tendency "for experimenters to believe, certify, and publish data that agree with their expectations for the outcome of an experiment, and to disbelieve, discard, or downgrade the corresponding weightings for data that appear to conflict with those expectations".  An example of: confirmation bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 171_cb
experimenter's bias expectation bias, experimenter's bias A tendency "for experimenters to believe, certify, and publish data that agree with their expectations for the outcome of an experiment, and to disbelieve, discard, or downgrade the corresponding weightings for data that appear to conflict with those expectations".  An example of: confirmation bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 172_cb
extension neglect A senario in which "the quantity of the sample size is not sufficiently taken into consideration when assessing the outcome, relevance or judgement".  Examples include: base rate fallacy, compassion fade, conjunction fallacy, duration neglect, hyperbolic discounting, insensitivity to sample size, less-is-better effect, neglect of probability, scope insensitivity, scope neglect, zero-risk bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 173_cb
extrinsic incentives bias A scenario in which "people view others as having (situational) extrinsic motivations and (dispositional) intrinsic motivations for oneself".  An exception to: fundamental attribution error.  A form of: attribution bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 174_cb
fading affect bias A tendency in which "the emotion associated with unpleasant memories fades more quickly than the emotion associated with positive events". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 175_cb
false consensus effect A tendency to "overestimate the degree to which others agree with them". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 176_cb
false memory A scenarion in which "imagination is mistaken for a memory".  A form of: misattribution of memory. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 177_cb
false priors A scenarion in which "initial beliefs and knowledge ... interfere with the unbiased evaluation of factual evidence and lead to incorrect conclusions".  Examples include: agent detection bias, automation bias, gender bias, sexual overperception bias, stereotyping. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 178_cb
false uniqueness bias A tendency people have to "see their projects and themselves as more singular than they actually are".  A form of: egocentric bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 179_cb
familiarity principle familiarity principle, mere exposure principle A tendency to "express undue liking for things merely because of familiarity with them". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 180_cb
Forer effect Barnum effect, Forer effect A tendency "for individuals to give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that supposedly are tailored specifically for them, but are in fact vague and general enough to apply to a wide range of people".  A form of egocentric bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 181_cb
form function attribution bias A tendnecy of people "to make systematic errors when interacting with a robot""based on its appearance (form)". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 182_cb
framing effect The tendency to "draw different conclusions from the same information, depending on how that information is presented".  Examples include: contrast effect, decoy effect, default effect, denomination effect, distinction bias, domain neglect bias, context neglect bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 183_cb
frequency illusion Baader–Meinhof phenomenon, frequency illusion A cognitive bias in which "once something has been noticed, then every instance of that thing is noticed, leading to the belief it has a high frequency of occurrence". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 184_cb
functional fixedness A tendenency "limiting a person to using an object only in the way it is traditionally used". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 185_cb
in-group favoritism group-serving bias, intergroup bias, in-group bias, in-group favoritism, in-group-out-group bias, in-group preference A tendency to favor members of a social group to which one blogs over people who are not members of that social group. [6], [23] 2024-06-11 2024-07-10 186_cb
fundamental pain bias A tendency "for people to believe they accurately report their own pain levels while holding the paradoxical belief that others exaggerate it". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-10 187_cb
G. I. Joe fallacy A tendency to "think that knowing about cognitive bias is enough to overcome it". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-10 188_cb
gambler's fallacy A tendency to "think that future probabilities are altered by past events, when in reality they are unchanged". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-10 189_cb
gender bias A "set of implicit biases that discriminate against a gender".  Examples: "the assumption that women are less suited to jobs requiring high intellectual ability" and "the assumption that people or animals are male in the absence of any indicators of gender". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-10 190_cb
gender differences in eyewitness memory A tendency "for a witness to remember more details about someone of the same gender".  A memory bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-10 191_cb
generation effect generation effect, self-generation effect A tendnecy in which "self-generated information is remembered best". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-10 192_cb
self-generation effect generation effect, self-generation effect A tendnecy in which "self-generated information is remembered best". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-10 193_cb
Google effect A tendency to "forget information that can be found readily online by using Internet search engines".  A memory bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-10 194_cb
group attribution error A tendency to believe that "the characteristics of an individual group member are reflective of the group as a whole" or to "assume that group decision outcomes reflect the preferences of group members" "even when information is available that clearly suggests otherwise".  Example of: attribution bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-10 195_cb
group-serving bias group-serving bias, intergroup bias, in-group bias, in-group favoritism, in-group-out-group bias, in-group preference A tendency to favor members of a social group to which one blogs over people who are not members of that social group. [6], [23] 2024-06-11 2024-07-10 196_cb
groupshift A tendency "for decisions to be more risk-seeking or risk-averse than the group as a whole, if the group is already biased in that direction".  Example of: conformity. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-10 197_cb
groupthink A tendency in which "the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome" as people "try to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative viewpoints by actively suppressing dissenting viewpoints, and by isolating themselves from outside influences".  Example of: conformity. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-10 198_cb
halo effect A social bias.  A form of association fallacy. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 199_cb
hard–easy effect A tendency "to overestimate one's ability to accomplish hard tasks, and underestimate one's ability to accomplish easy tasks".  Category of bias: self-assessment. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-10 200_cb
hedonic recall bias A tendency "for people who are satisfied with their wage to overestimate how much they earn, and vice versa, for people who are unsatisfied with their wage to underestimate it". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-10 201_cb
herd behavior A tendency of "individuals in a group acting collectively without centralized direction". [6], [24] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 202_cb
hindsight bias hindsight bias,  hindsight is 20/20 effect, I-knew-it-all-along effect A tendency to "see past events as having been predictable". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 203_cb
I-knew-it-all-along effect hindsight bias, hindsight is 20/20, I-knew-it-all-along effect A tendency to "see past events as having been predictable". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 204_cb
hindsight is 20/20 effect hindsight bias, hindsight is 20/20, I-knew-it-all-along effect A tendency to "see past events as having been predictable". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 205_cb
hostile attribution bias A tendency to "interpret others' behaviors as having hostile intent, even when the behavior is ambiguous or benign".  A form of: attribution bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 206_cb
hot-cold empathy gap A tendency to "underestimate the influence of visceral drives on one's attitudes, preferences, and behaviors".  Bias category: self-assessment. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 207_cb
hot hand hot hand, hot-hand fallacy, hot hand phenomenon A tendency to believe that "a person who has experienced success with a random event has a greater chance of further success in additional attempts". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 208_cb
hot hand phenomenon hot hand, hot-hand fallacy, hot hand phenomenon A tendency to believe that "a person who has experienced success with a random event has a greater chance of further success in additional attempts". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 209_cb
hot-hand fallacy hot hand, hot-hand fallacy, hot hand phenomenon A tendency to believe that "a person who has experienced success with a random event has a greater chance of further success in additional attempts". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 210_cb
humor effect A tendency for "humorous items" to be "more easily remembered than non-humorous ones".  A form of: memory bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 211_cb
hyperbolic discounting current moment bias, hyperbolic discounting, present bias A tendency "for people to have a stronger preference for more immediate payoffs relative to later payoffs". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 212_cb
greedflation fallacy A mistaken belief that "corporate greed causes inflation".  A fallacy surrounding: capitalism. [27] 2024-06-11 2024-07-15 213_lf
IKEA effect A tendency "for people to place a disproportionately high value on objects that they partially assembled themselves".  Ane xample of: effort justification.  Bias category: cognitive dissonance. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 214_cb
illusion of asymmetric insight [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 215_cb
illusion of control [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 216_cb
illusion of explanatory depth [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 217_cb
illusion of transparency [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 218_cb
illusion of validity [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 219_cb
illusory correlation [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 220_cb
illusory superiority better-than-average effect, illusory superiority, Lake Wobegon effect, superiority bias A "tendency to overestimate one's desirable qualities, and underestimate undesirable qualities, relative to other people".  A form of egocentric bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 221_cb
illusory truth effect (illusion-of-truth effect) [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 222_cb
implicit association [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 223_cb
impostor syndrome [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 224_cb
in-group bias group-serving bias, intergroup bias, in-group bias, in-group favoritism, in-group-out-group bias, in-group preference A tendency to favor members of a social group to which one blogs over people who are not members of that social group. [6], [23] 2024-06-11 2024-07-10 225_cb
ingroup bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 226_cb
information bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 227_cb
insensitivity to sample size [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 228_cb
intentionality bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 229_cb
interoceptive bias or hungry judge effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 230_cb
irrational escalation escalation of commitment, irrational escalation, sunk cost fallacy A tendency in which "people justify increased investment in a decision, based on the cumulative prior investment, despite new evidence suggesting that the decision was probably wrong". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 231_cb_lf
just-world hypothesis [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 232_cb
lag effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 233_cb
Lake Wobegon effect better-than-average effect, illusory superiority, Lake Wobegon effect, superiority bias A "tendency to overestimate one's desirable qualities, and underestimate undesirable qualities, relative to other people".  A form of egocentric bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 234_cb
law of the instrument [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 235_cb
less-is-better effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 236_cb
leveling and sharpening [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 237_cb
levels-of-processing effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 238_cb
list-length effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 239_cb
logical fallacy [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 240_cb
loss aversion [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 241_cb
memory bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 242_cb
memory inhibition [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 243_cb
mere exposure effect familiarity principle, mere exposure principle A tendency to "express undue liking for things merely because of familiarity with them". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 244_cb
misattribution of memory A tendency for a person recalling a memory to misidentify the origin of the memory.  Examples include: cryptomnesia, false memory, social crytomnesia, source confusion, suggestibility, Perky effect. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 245_cb
misinformation effect The tendency for an "original memory" to be "affected by incorrect information received later" ("a person's recall of episodic memories becomes less accurate because of post-event information"). [6], [18] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 246_cb
modality effect A tendency in which "memory recall is higher for the last items of a list when the list items were received via speech than when they were received through writing".  A form of memory bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 247_cb
money illusion [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 248_cb
mood-congruent memory bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 249_cb
state-dependent memory [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 250_cb
moral credential effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 251_cb
moral luck [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 252_cb
naive cynicism [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 253_cb
naive realism [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 254_cb
negativity bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 255_cb
negativity effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 256_cb
neglect of probability [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 257_cb
next-in-line effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 258_cb
non-adaptive choice switching [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 259_cb
normalcy bias A tendency to refuse "to plan for, or react to, a disaster which has never happened before".  Bias category: cognitive dissonance. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 260_cb
not invented here A tendency to dislike or avoid the "contact with or use of products, research, standards, or knowledge developed outside a group".  Example of: ingroup bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 261_cb
objectification A tendency to treat "a person as an object or a thing". See also: anthropomorphism, dehumanised perception, dehumanization. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 262_cb
objectivity illusion [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 263_cb
observer-expectancy effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 264_cb
omission bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 265_cb
optimism bias A tendency "to be over-optimistic, underestimating greatly the probability of undesirable outcomes and overestimating favorable and pleasing outcomes".  Opposite of: pessimism bias.  See also: positive outcome bias, valence effect, wishful thinking. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 266_cb
ostrich effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 267_cb
outcome bias argument from consequences, outcome bias As a logical fallacy (outcome bias): a fallacy of claiming that something cannot be true because, if it were true, that would be bad or have a negative effect (while in reality the validity of the claim does not actually depend on the positive or negative impact of the claims).  A fallacy of relevance.  (See also: outcome bias.  Do not confuse with: actions have consequences.As a cognitive bias (outcome bias): a fallacy "to judge a decision by its eventual outcome instead of the quality of the decision at the time it was made." [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-28 268_cb_lf
outgroup favoritism A tendency in which "some socially disadvantaged groups will express favorable attitudes (and even preferences) toward social, cultural, or ethnic groups other than their own".  A form of: social bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 269_cb
outgroup homogeneity bias A tendency in which "individuals see members of other groups as being relatively less varied than members of their own group".  A form of: ingroup bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 270_cb
overconfidence effect A tendency to "have excessive confidence in one's own answers to questions".  A form of: egocentric bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 271_cb
pareidolia A tendency to "to perceive a vague and random stimulus (often an image or sound) as significant".  A form of: apophenia. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 272_cb
part-list cueing effect A tendency in which "being shown some items from a list and later retrieving one item causes it to become harder to retrieve the other items".  A form of: memory bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 273_cb
peak–end rule A tendency in which "people seem to perceive not the sum of an experience but the average of how it was at its peak (e.g., pleasant or unpleasant) and how it ended".  A form of: memory bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 274_cb
persistence A tendency for a traumatic event to result in unwanted recurrence of memories. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 275_cb
pessimism bias A tendency "for some people...to overestimate the likelihood of negative things happening to them".  See also: cynicism.  Opposite of: optimism bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 276_cb
picture superiority effect A tendency in which "concepts that are learned by viewing pictures are more easily and frequently recalled than are concepts that are learned by viewing their written word form counterparts." [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 277_cb
placement bias A tendency to "remember ourselves to be better than others at tasks at which we rate ourselves above average" and "to remember ourselves to be worse than others at tasks at which we rate ourselves below average".  See also: better-than-average effect, illusory superiority, worse-than-average effect. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 278_cb
plan continuation bias A tendency to fail to "recognize that the original plan of action is no longer appropriate for a changing situation or for a situation that is different from anticipated". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-11 279_cb_lf
planning fallacy [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 280_cb
plant blindness [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 281_cb
positive outcome bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 282_cb
positivity effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 283_cb
present bias current moment bias, hyperbolic discounting, present bias A tendency "for people to have a stronger preference for more immediate payoffs relative to later payoffs". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 284_cb
prevention bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 285_cb
primacy effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 286_cb
probability matching [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 287_cb
processing difficulty effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 288_cb
projection bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 289_cb
proportionality bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 290_cb
prospect theory [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 291_cb
pseudocertainty effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 292_cb
puritanical bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 293_cb
Pygmalion effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 294_cb
reactance [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 295_cb
reactive devaluation [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 296_cb
recency bias appeal to novelty, bad old days, early adopter's fallacy, pro-innovation bias, recency bias A fallacy that a view or other thing must be correct or better because it is new or recent. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-21 297_cb
recency effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 298_cb
recency illusion [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 299_cb
reminiscence bump [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 300_cb
repetition blindness [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 301_cb
restraint bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 302_cb
rhyme as reason effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 303_cb
risk aversion [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 304_cb
risk compensation [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 305_cb
Peltzman effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 306_cb
rosy retrospection [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 307_cb
salience bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 308_cb
saying is believing effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 309_cb
scope neglect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 310_cb
selection bias selection bias, selection effect The result when "the members of a statistical sample are not chosen completely at random", and as a result, the sample is "not representative of the population".  An example of: availability heuristic. [6], [20] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 311_cb
selective perception [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 312_cb
self-relevance effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 313_cb
self-serving bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 314_cb
Semmelweis reflex [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 315_cb
serial position effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 316_cb
seven sins of memory [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 317_cb
sexual overperception bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 318_cb
shared information bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 319_cb
social bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 320_cb
social comparison bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 321_cb
social cryptomnesia [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 322_cb
social desirability bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 323_cb
source confusion [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 324_cb
spacing effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 325_cb
spotlight effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 326_cb
status quo bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 327_cb
stereotype bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 328_cb
stereotypical bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 329_cb
stereotyping [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 330_cb
subadditivity effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 331_cb
subject-expectancy effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 332_cb
subjective validation [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 333_cb
suffix effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 334_cb
suggestibility [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 335_cb_lf
sunk cost fallacy escalation of commitment, irrational escalation, sunk cost fallacy A tendency in which "people justify increased investment in a decision, based on the cumulative prior investment, despite new evidence suggesting that the decision was probably wrong". [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-09 336_cb_lf
superiority bias better-than-average effect, illusory superiority, Lake Wobegon effect, superiority bias A "tendency to overestimate one's desirable qualities, and underestimate undesirable qualities, relative to other people".  A form of egocentric bias. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 337_cb
surrogation [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 338_cb
survivorship bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 339_cb
system justification [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 340_cb
systematic bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 341_cb
tachypsychia [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 342_cb
teleological bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 343_cb
telescoping effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 344_cb
testing effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 345_cb
Perky effect A tendency "real images" to "influence imagined images, or be misremembered as imagined rather than real".  An example of: misattribution of memory. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 346_cb
third-person effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 347_cb
time-saving bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 348_cb
tip of the tongue phenomenon [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 349_cb
trait ascription bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 350_cb
Travis syndrome [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 351_cb
truth bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 352_cb
Turkey illusion [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 353_cb
ultimate attribution error [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 354_cb
unconscious bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 355_cb
implicit bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 356_cb
unit bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 357_cb
valence effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 358_cb
value selection bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 359_cb
verbatim effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 360_cb
von Restorff effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 361_cb
Weber–Fechner law [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 362_cb
well travelled road effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 363_cb
wishful thinking [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 364_cb
women are wonderful effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 365_cb
worse-than-average effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 366_cb
Zeigarnik effect [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 367_cb
zero-risk bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 368_cb
zero-sum bias [6] 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 369_cb
I don't want to hear it 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 370_lf
motte and bailey doctrine motte and bailey doctrine, motte and bailey fallacy A fallacy of conflating two similar positions, one easier to defend and one much more controversial and harder to defend, in which the arguer "advances the controversial position, but when challenged, insists that only the more modest position is being advanced", then claims that the more controversial position has not been refuted.  Ain informal fallacy. [5] 2024-06-11 2024-07-06 371_lf
Nuremberg defense blind loyalty, blind obedience, Nuremberg defense, team player appeal, unthinking obedience A fallacy which holds that "an argument or action is right simply and solely because a respected leader or source (a President, expert, one's parents, one's own side, team or country, one's boss or commanding officers) says it is right".  A corrupted argument from ethos.  See also: big brain little brain fallacy, soldiers' honor fallacy. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 372_lf
affective fallacy affective fallacy, appeal to emotion, appeal to pity, argument from pity, argumentum ad misericordiam, emotion over reflection, follow your heart, playing to emotions, romantic fallacy "An emotional appeal to what should be a logical issue".  "Opposite to this is...chosen emotion fallacy.  Often, "a fallacy of encouragement to root of the underdog regardless of the issues at hand".  "A corrupt argument from pathos."  A fallacy of relevance.  Closely related to angelism.  "Opposite to this is...chosen emotion fallacy."  Opposite of: appeal to rigor. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-24 373_lf
all or nothing thinking bifurcation, black/white fallacy, black and white fallacy, either or fallacy, either/or reasoning, excluded middle, false binary, false dichotomy, false dilemma A conclusion is reached based on there only being two possible options, when really the possibilities are not so limited.  A component fallacy. 2024-06-11 2024-06-14 374_lf
alt facts alt facts, alternate facts, alternative truth, counterknowledge, disinformation, information pollution A fallacy holding that objective facts and truth cannot really exist, are not durable, or are really subjective.  A "fallacy of logos rooted in postmodernism".  Related to: big lie technique.  See also: gaslighting, blind loyalty, big brain little brain fallacy, two truths. 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 375_lf
alternate facts alt facts, alternate facts, alternative truth, counterknowledge, disinformation, information pollution A fallacy holding that objective facts and truth cannot really exist, are not durable, or are really subjective.  A "fallacy of logos rooted in postmodernism".  Related to: big lie technique.  See also: gaslighting, blind loyalty, big brain little brain fallacy, two truths. 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 376_lf
American exceptionalism appeal to heaven, argumentum ad coelum, Deus vult, Gott mit uns, manifest destiny, special covenant A fallacy based on claiming to know God's mind and wishes, which cannot really be challenged.  A "deluded argument from ethos".  Opposite of Job's comforter fallacy. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-14 377_lf
appeal to authority argument from modesty, appeal to authority, appeal to improper authority, argumentum ad verecundium, argument from that which is improper A fallacy of not "evaluating the...argument on its own merits" and instead simply accepting the conclusion of an individual who may be an expert in a field but whose expertise is unrelated to the argument. A specific form of appeal to improper authority. A subcategory is appeal to biased authority. A fallacy of relevance. [1], [2] 2024-06-11 2024-06-21 378_lf
appeal to ignorance appeal to a lack of evidence, appeal to ignorance, argument from ignorance, argumentum ad ignorantiam A fallacy using lack of knowledge to arrive at a conclusion.  One might might say that because a claim cannot be disproven, therefore the opposite must be true.  Or, since we do not know (or cannot know, or cannot prove) something, then it must be true (or false).  A fallacy of omission.  Includes attacking the evidence, whataboutism, and missing link.  See also: a priori argument, appealing to closure, deliberate ignorance, simpleton's fallacy, argumentum ex silentio. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 379_lf
appeal to popular opinion argument from common sense, argument to the people, argumentum ad populum, appeal to popular opinion, bandwagon, bandwagon fallacy A fallacy claiming that something is true because it is believed by most people (or by "everyone," "the people," "the majority" or "someone in power who has widespread backing").  A fallacy of relevance.  Sub-approaches can include bandwagon ("everyone's doing it"); patriotic ("it is patriotic"); snob "the best people are doing it"; and covering oneself with the cross ("it's Christian").  Can include: lying with statistics.  A modern form is: information cascade. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 380_lf
arguing beside the point arguing beside the point, ignorantio elenchi, ignoring the issue, irrelevant conclusion A fallacy of switching attention to a different issue (which might be a valid issue but is unrelated to the topic at hand).  A component fallacy.  Similar to: begging the question.  A common form: the red herring.  Another example: tu quoque, and you too. [1], [2] 2024-06-11 2024-06-26 381_lf
argumentum ad odium See also: argumentum ad personam, ad hominem. [15] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 382_lf
argument from common sense argument from common sense, argument to the people, argumentum ad populum, appeal to popular opinion, bandwagon, bandwagon fallacy A fallacy claiming that something is true because it is believed by most people (or by "everyone," "the people," "the majority" or "someone in power who has widespread backing").  A fallacy of relevance.  Sub-approaches can include bandwagon ("everyone's doing it"); patriotic ("it is patriotic"); snob "the best people are doing it"; and covering oneself with the cross ("it's Christian").  Can include: lying with statistics.  A modern form is: information cascade. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 383_lf
argument from ignorance appeal to a lack of evidence, appeal to ignorance, argument from ignorance, argumentum ad ignorantiam A fallacy using lack of knowledge to arrive at a conclusion.  One might might say that because a claim cannot be disproven, therefore the opposite must be true.  Or, since we do not know (or cannot know, or cannot prove) something, then it must be true (or false).  A fallacy of omission.  Includes attacking the evidence, whataboutism, and missing link.  See also: a priori argument, appealing to closure, deliberate ignorance, simpleton's fallacy, argumentum ex silentio. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 384_lf
argument from incredulity argument from incredulity, argument from personal incredulity A fallacy of asserting that an argument must not be true just because one personally does not understand it or cannot grasp its technical aspects. [1], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-28 385_lf
argument from modesty argument from modesty, appeal to authority, appeal to improper authority, argumentum ad verecundium, argument from that which is improper A fallacy of not "evaluating the...argument on its own merits" and instead simply accepting the conclusion of an individual who may be an expert in a field but whose expertise is unrelated to the argument. A specific form of appeal to improper authority. A subcategory is appeal to biased authority. A fallacy of relevance. [1], [2] 2024-06-11 2024-06-21 386_lf
argument from mystery argument from mystery, argumentum ad mysteriam, mystagogy A fallacy in which some "facts, evidence, practices or arguments" gain weight due to a "quasi-hypnotic effect" that "can often persuade more strongly than any logical argument" derived from special sounds, postures, clothing, rituals, recitations, chants, ancient languages, or other effects introducing a sense of the unknown.  Example: long ago and far away.  See also: esoteric knowledge.  An obverse: standard version fallacy. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 387_lf
argument from pity affective fallacy, appeal to emotion, appeal to pity, argument from pity, argumentum ad misericordiam, emotion over reflection, follow your heart, playing to emotions, romantic fallacy "An emotional appeal to what should be a logical issue".  "Opposite to this is...chosen emotion fallacy.  Often, "a fallacy of encouragement to root of the underdog regardless of the issues at hand".  "A corrupt argument from pathos."  A fallacy of relevance.  Closely related to angelism.  "Opposite to this is...chosen emotion fallacy."  Opposite of: appeal to rigor. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-24 388_lf
argument from silence argument from silence, argumentum ex silentio A fallacy in which it is claimed that, just because the currently available knowledge or evidence cannot prove anything about a claim, therefore this in itself proves that status of the claim as true or false (whereas, really, additional evidence or facts could be sought). [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 389_lf
argument from that which is improper argument from modesty, appeal to authority, appeal to improper authority, argumentum ad verecundium, argument from that which is improper A fallacy of not "evaluating the...argument on its own merits" and instead simply accepting the conclusion of an individual who may be an expert in a field but whose expertise is unrelated to the argument. A specific form of appeal to improper authority. A subcategory is appeal to biased authority. A fallacy of relevance. [1], [2] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 390_lf
argument from the club (stick) appeal to force, argument from force, argument from strength, argument from the club (stick), argumentum ad baculum, bullying, fascism, hard power, might-makes-right, muscular leadership, non-negotiable demands, power-play, resolution by force of arms, shock and awe A fallacy in which a conclusion is reached due to force, threat of force, or threat of unpleasantness.  A fallacy of relevance, since reason for conclusion is not relevant to the argument at hand. [1], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 391_lf
argument to the people argument from common sense, argument to the people, argumentum ad populum, appeal to popular opinion, bandwagon, bandwagon fallacy A fallacy claiming that something is true because it is believed by most people (or by "everyone," "the people," "the majority" or "someone in power who has widespread backing").  A fallacy of relevance.  Sub-approaches can include bandwagon ("everyone's doing it"); patriotic ("it is patriotic"); snob "the best people are doing it"; and covering oneself with the cross ("it's Christian").  Can include: lying with statistics.  A modern form is: information cascade. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 392_lf
argument toward the man ad hominem argument, argumentum ad hominem, attacking the person, personal attack, poisoning the well Arguing against the opposing party instead of the reasoning given by the opposing party. This might question the intelligence, credentials, or character of the opposition. A "corrupted negative argument from ethos". Subcategories include abusive and circumstantial types. A fallacy of relevance. The opposite of star power. An obverse is token endorsement. See also: guilt by association. 2024-06-11 2024-06-13 393_lf
argumentum ad antiquitatem appeal to tradition, argumentum ad traditionem, argumentum ad antiquitatem, back in those good times, conservative bias, good old days A fallacy of holding a position as correct or a thing (scenario or deed) as good because it has always been that way or was that way long ago (and might still "serve one particular group very well").  A fallacy of relevance.  A "corrupted argument from ethos" (from the past).  Often related in time to the audience's young years, but not prior.  Opposite of: appeal to novelty, bad old days, early adopter's fallacy, pro-innovation bias, recency bias. [1], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-26 394_lf
argumentum ad coelum American exceptionalism, appeal to heaven, Deus vult, Gott mit uns, manifest destiny, special covenant A fallacy based on claiming to know God's mind and wishes, which cannot really be challenged.  A "deluded argument from ethos".  Opposite of Job's comforter fallacy. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-14 395_lf
argumentum ad hominem ad hominem argument, argument toward the man, attacking the person, personal attack, poisoning the well Arguing against the opposing party instead of the reasoning given by the opposing party. This might question the intelligence, credentials, or character of the opposition. A "corrupted negative argument from ethos". Subcategories include abusive and circumstantial types. A fallacy of relevance. The opposite of star power. An obverse is token endorsement. See also: guilt by association. 2024-06-11 2024-06-13 396_lf
argumentum ad ignorantiam appeal to a lack of evidence, appeal to ignorance, argument from ignorance, argumentum ad ignorantiam A fallacy using lack of knowledge to arrive at a conclusion.  One might might say that because a claim cannot be disproven, therefore the opposite must be true.  Or, since we do not know (or cannot know, or cannot prove) something, then it must be true (or false).  A fallacy of omission.  Includes attacking the evidence, whataboutism, and missing link.  See also: a priori argument, appealing to closure, deliberate ignorance, simpleton's fallacy, argumentum ex silentio. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 397_lf
argumentum ad misericordiam affective fallacy, appeal to emotion, appeal to pity, argument from pity, argumentum ad misericordiam, emotion over reflection, follow your heart, playing to emotions, romantic "An emotional appeal to what should be a logical issue".  "Opposite to this is...chosen emotion fallacy.  Often, "a fallacy of encouragement to root of the underdog regardless of the issues at hand".  "A corrupt argument from pathos."  A fallacy of relevance.  Closely related to angelism.  "Opposite to this is...chosen emotion fallacy."  Opposite of: appeal to rigor. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-24 398_lf
argumentum ad traditionem appeal to tradition, argumentum ad traditionem, argumentum ad antiquitatem, back in those good times, conservative bias, good old days A fallacy of holding a position as correct or a thing (scenario or deed) as good because it has always been that way or was that way long ago (and might still "serve one particular group very well").  A fallacy of relevance.  A "corrupted argument from ethos" (from the past).  Often related in time to the audience's young years, but not prior.  Opposite of: appeal to novelty, bad old days, early adopter's fallacy, pro-innovation bias, recency bias. [1], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-26 399_lf
argumentum ad verecundium argument from modesty, appeal to authority, appeal to improper authority, argumentum ad verecundium, argument from that which is improper A fallacy of not "evaluating the...argument on its own merits" and instead simply accepting the conclusion of an individual who may be an expert in a field but whose expertise is unrelated to the argument. A specific form of appeal to improper authority. A subcategory is appeal to biased authority. A fallacy of relevance. [1], [2] 2024-06-11 2024-06-21 400_lf
assertiveness appeasement, assertiveness, I know my rights, squeaky wheel gets the grease A fallacy of obtaining a result not through argument but through the audience's willingness to give in so that the opposition will simply be satisfied, quieter, or no longer a nuisance.  Common in public agencies, education, and retail.  Sometimes promoted as a practical, nonviolent way for groups to promote change.  See also: bribery. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-26 401_lf
attacking the person ad hominem argument, argumentum ad hominem, argument toward the man, personal attack, poisoning the well Arguing against the opposing party instead of the reasoning given by the opposing party. This might question the intelligence, credentials, or character of the opposition. A "corrupted negative argument from ethos". Subcategories include abusive and circumstantial types. A fallacy of relevance. The opposite of star power. An obverse is token endorsement. See also: guilt by association. 2024-06-11 2024-06-13 402_lf
attentional bias attention bias A tendency for perception to be influenced by thought repetition.  See also: anchoring bias, availability bias, availability heuristic, focalism. [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 403_lf
back in those good times appeal to tradition, argumentum ad traditionem, argumentum ad antiquitatem, back in those good times, conservative bias, good old days A fallacy of holding a position as correct or a thing (scenario or deed) as good because it has always been that way or was that way long ago (and might still "serve one particular group very well").  A fallacy of relevance.  A "corrupted argument from ethos" (from the past).  Often related in time to the audience's young years, but not prior.  Opposite of: appeal to novelty, bad old days, early adopter's fallacy, pro-innovation bias, recency bias. [1], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-26 404_lf
bad old days appeal to novelty, bad old days, early adopter's fallacy, pro-innovation bias, recency bias A fallacy that a view or other thing must be correct or better because it is new or recent. 2024-06-11 2024-06-21 405_lf
bandwagon fallacy argument from common sense, argument to the people, argumentum ad populum, appeal to popular opinion, bandwagon, bandwagon fallacy A fallacy claiming that something is true because it is believed by most people (or by "everyone," "the people," "the majority" or "someone in power who has widespread backing").  A fallacy of relevance.  Sub-approaches can include bandwagon ("everyone's doing it"); patriotic ("it is patriotic"); snob "the best people are doing it"; and covering oneself with the cross ("it's Christian").  Can include: lying with statistics.  A modern form is: information cascade. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 406_lf
bifurcation all or nothing thinking, black and white fallacy, black/white fallacy, either or fallacy, either/or reasoning, excluded middle, false binary, false dichotomy, false dilemma A conclusion is reached based on there only being two possible options, when really the possibilities are not so limited.  A component fallacy. 2024-06-11 2024-06-14 407_lf
biologizing appeal to nature, biologizing, green fallacy A fallacy that just because something is natural, therefore "it has to be good, healthy, and beneficial".  A "contemporary romantic fallacy of ethos". See also: argument from natural law. 2024-06-11 2024-06-23 408_lf
black and white fallacy all or nothing thinking, bifurcation, black/white fallacy, either or fallacy, either/or reasoning, excluded middle, false binary, false dichotomy, false dilemma A conclusion is reached based on there only being two possible options, when really the possibilities are not so limited.  A component fallacy. 2024-06-11 2024-06-14 409_lf
black/white fallacy all or nothing thinking, bifurcation, black and white fallacy, either or fallacy, either/or reasoning, excluded middle, false binary, false dichotomy, false dilemma A conclusion is reached based on there only being two possible options, when really the possibilities are not so limited.  A component fallacy. 2024-06-11 2024-06-14 410_lf
blind obedience blind loyalty, blind obedience, Nuremberg defense, team player appeal, unthinking obedience A fallacy which holds that "an argument or action is right simply and solely because a respected leader or source (a President, expert, one's parents, one's own side, team or country, one's boss or commanding officers) says it is right".  A corrupted argument from ethos.  See also: big brain little brain fallacy, soldiers' honor fallacy. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 411_lf
bold faced lie big lie technique, bold faced lie, staying on message A fallacy of "repeating a lie, fallacy, slogan, talking-point, nonsense-statement or deceptive half-truth over and over in different forms (particularly in the media) until it becomes part of daily discourse and people accept it without further proof or evidence".  Notably, "the bolder and more outlandish the big lie becomes the more credible it seems".  See also: alphabet soup, alternative truth; bandwagon fallacy, propaganda, straw man. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 412_lf
camel's nose fallacy camel's nose fallacy, domino theory, slippery slope A fallacy holding that "one thing inevitably leads to another" when this is not necessarily the case.  A non sequitur. [1], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 413_lf
card stacking card stacking, half truth, incomplete information, stacking the deck A fallacy of ignoring examples or evidence that disprove one's point and instead only listing examples or sharing evidence which would support one's point.  A fallacy of omission.  A "corrupt argument from logos".  Different from: straw man.  See also: confirmation bias, hasty generalization. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 414_lf
catch 22 begging the question, catch 22, circular reasoning, circulus in probando, petitio principii, vicious circle A fallacy in which the same proposition appears as a premise and as a conclusion (sometimes worded in two statements appearing differently enough to make this not very obvious); for example, "A, therefore B." and also "B, therefore A".  Sometimes, begging the question and circular reasoning are used interchangeably and sometimes with a difference--begging the question or petitio principii more specifically assumes as evidence the conclusion they are trying to prove.)  A fallacy of logos.  A component fallacy.  See also: complex question, big lie technique. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 415_lf
choice-support bias choice-support bias, choice-supportive bias, defensiveness, myside bias A fallacy and bias in which "after one has taken a given decision, commitment or course of action, one automatically tends to defend that decision and to irrationally dismiss opposing options even when one's decision later on proves to be shaky or wrong".  A "fallacy of ethos (one's own)".  See also argument from inertia, confirmation bias. [3], [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-05 416_cb_lf
circulus in probando 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 417_lf
closed-mindedness 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 418_lf
coincidental correlation 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 419_lf
compadrismo 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 420_lf
con artist's fallacy 2024-06-11 2024-06-12 421_lf
conservative bias appeal to tradition, argumentum ad traditionem, argumentum ad antiquitatem, back in those good times, conservative bias, good old days A fallacy of holding a position as correct or a thing (scenario or deed) as good because it has always been that way or was that way long ago (and might still "serve one particular group very well").  A fallacy of relevance.  A "corrupted argument from ethos" (from the past).  Often related in time to the audience's young years, but not prior.  Opposite of: appeal to novelty, bad old days, early adopter's fallacy, pro-innovation bias, recency bias. [1], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-26 422_lf
converse accident 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 423_lf
counterknowledge alt facts, alternate facts, alternative truth, counterknowledge, disinformation, information pollution A fallacy holding that objective facts and truth cannot really exist, are not durable, or are really subjective.  A "fallacy of logos rooted in postmodernism".  Related to: big lie technique.  See also: gaslighting, blind loyalty, big brain little brain fallacy, two truths. 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 424_lf
cum hoc ergo propter hoc cum hoc ergo propter hoc, correlation implies causation A fallacy of concluding that one thing causes another just because of their occurring together (at the same time or one after the other) or "solely on the basis of an observed association or correlation between them".  An example of: causal fallacy, false cause, non causa pro causa, non-cause for cause.  See also: post hoc argument, post hoc propter hoc, post hoc ergo propter hoc, too much of a coincidence, clustering illusion. [1], [2], [3], [16], [17], [18] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 425_lf
cursing 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 426_lf
dacoits fallacy 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 427_lf
Deus vult American exceptionalism, appeal to heaven, argumentum ad coelum, Gott mit uns, manifest destiny, special covenant A fallacy based on claiming to know God's mind and wishes, which cannot really be challenged.  A "deluded argument from ethos".  Opposite of Job's comforter fallacy. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-14 428_lf
dicto simpliciter 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 429_lf
disinformation disinformation 2024-06-11 2024-06-14 430_lf
early adopter's fallacy appeal to novelty, bad old days, early adopter's fallacy, pro-innovation bias, recency bias A fallacy that a view or other thing must be correct or better because it is new or recent. 2024-06-11 2024-06-21 431_lf
emotion over reflection affective fallacy, appeal to emotion, appeal to pity, argument from pity, argumentum ad misericordiam, emotion over reflection, follow your heart, playing to emotions, romantic fallacy "An emotional appeal to what should be a logical issue".  "Opposite to this is...chosen emotion fallacy.  Often, "a fallacy of encouragement to root of the underdog regardless of the issues at hand".  "A corrupt argument from pathos."  A fallacy of relevance.  Closely related to angelism.  "Opposite to this is...chosen emotion fallacy."  Opposite of: appeal to rigor. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-24 432_lf
esoteric wisdom 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 433_lf
everybody's a winner everybody's a winner, heroes all A fallacy holding that "everyone is above average or extraordinary".  Opposite is: all the king's men.  See also: hero-busting, identity fallacy, perfect is the enemy of good. 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 434_lf
fallacy of misplaced concreteness 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 435_lf
false binary all or nothing thinking, bifurcation, black and white fallacy, black/white fallacy, either or fallacy, either/or reasoning, excluded middle, false binary, false dilemma A conclusion is reached based on there only being two possible options, when really the possibilities are not so limited.  A component fallacy. 2024-06-11 2024-06-14 436_lf
false dichotomy all or nothing thinking, bifurcation, black and white fallacy, black/white fallacy, either or fallacy, either/or reasoning, excluded middle, false binary, false dilemma A conclusion is reached based on there only being two possible options, when really the possibilities are not so limited.  A component fallacy. 2024-06-11 2024-06-14 437_lf
false dilemma all or nothing thinking, bifurcation, black and white fallacy, black/white fallacy, either or fallacy, either/or reasoning, excluded middle, false binary, false dilemma A conclusion is reached based on there only being two possible options, when really the possibilities are not so limited.  A component fallacy. 2024-06-11 2024-06-14 438_lf
favoritism 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 439_lf
follow your heart affective fallacy, appeal to emotion, appeal to pity, argument from pity, argumentum ad misericordiam, emotion over reflection, follow your heart, playing to emotions, romantic "An emotional appeal to what should be a logical issue".  "Opposite to this is...chosen emotion fallacy.  Often, "a fallacy of encouragement to root of the underdog regardless of the issues at hand".  "A corrupt argument from pathos."  A fallacy of relevance.  Closely related to angelism.  "Opposite to this is...chosen emotion fallacy."  Opposite of: appeal to rigor. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-24 440_lf
for my friends anything 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 441_lf
führerprinzip big brain little brain, führerprinzip, mad leader disease A fallacy in which a person in a leadership or authority position (a work boss, military commander, or some sort of religious, cult, or group leader) tells people to think not with their little brains (the brain in their head) but instead with their big brain (the leader's brain).  An "extreme example of the blind loyalty fallacy".  Sometimes expressed positively in that the leader takes (moral) responsibilty for decisions.  The opposite is: plausible deniability.  See also: just do it, gaslighting. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 442_lf
gnosticism 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 443_lf
good old days appeal to tradition, argumentum ad traditionem, argumentum ad antiquitatem, back in those good times, conservative bias, good old days A fallacy of holding a position as correct or a thing (scenario or deed) as good because it has always been that way or was that way long ago (and might still "serve one particular group very well").  A fallacy of relevance.  A "corrupted argument from ethos" (from the past).  Often related in time to the audience's young years, but not prior.  Opposite of: appeal to novelty, bad old days, early adopter's fallacy, pro-innovation bias, recency bias. [1], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-26 444_lf
Gott mit uns American exceptionalism, appeal to heaven, argumentum ad coelum, Deus vult, manifest destiny, special covenant A fallacy based on claiming to know God's mind and wishes, which cannot really be challenged.  A "deluded argument from ethos".  Opposite of Job's comforter fallacy. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-14 445_lf
green fallacy appeal to nature, biologizing, green fallacy A fallacy that just because something is natural, therefore "it has to be good, healthy, and beneficial".  A "contemporary romantic fallacy of ethos". See also: argument from natural law. 2024-06-11 2024-06-23 446_lf
half truth card stacking, half truth, incomplete information, stacking the deck A fallacy of ignoring examples or evidence that disprove one's point and instead only listing examples or sharing evidence which would support one's point.  A fallacy of omission.  A "corrupt argument from logos".  Different from: straw man.  See also: confirmation bias, hasty generalization. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 447_lf
hear no evil speak no evil 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 448_lf
I know my rights appeasement, assertiveness, I know my rights, squeaky wheel gets the grease A fallacy of obtaining a result not through argument but through the audience's willingness to give in so that the opposition will simply be satisfied, quieter, or no longer a nuisance.  Common in public agencies, education, and retail.  Sometimes promoted as a practical, nonviolent way for groups to promote change.  See also: bribery. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-26 449_lf
ignorantio elenchi arguing beside the point, ignorantio elenchi, ignoring the issue, irrelevant conclusion A fallacy of switching attention to a different issue (which might be a valid issue but is unrelated to the topic at hand).  A component fallacy.  Similar to: begging the question.  A common form: the red herring.  Another example: tu quoque, and you too. [1], [2] 2024-06-11 2024-06-26 450_lf
ignoring the issue arguing beside the point, ignorantio elenchi, ignoring the issue, irrelevant conclusion A fallacy of switching attention to a different issue (which might be a valid issue but is unrelated to the topic at hand).  A component fallacy.  Similar to: begging the question.  A common form: the red herring.  Another example: tu quoque, and you too. [1], [2] 2024-06-11 2024-06-26 451_lf
information pollution alt facts, alternate facts, alternative truth, counterknowledge, disinformation, information pollution A fallacy holding that objective facts and truth cannot really exist, are not durable, or are really subjective.  A "fallacy of logos rooted in postmodernism".  Related to: big lie technique.  See also: gaslighting, blind loyalty, big brain little brain fallacy, two truths. 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 452_lf
inner sanctum 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 453_lf
inner truth 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 454_lf
it does not follow 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 455_lf
jumping to conclusions 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 456_lf
let the facts speak For themselves 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 457_lf
loaded question 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 458_lf
mad leader disease big brain little brain, führerprinzip, mad leader disease A fallacy in which a person in a leadership or authority position (a work boss, military commander, or some sort of religious, cult, or group leader) tells people to think not with their little brains (the brain in their head) but instead with their big brain (the leader's brain).  An "extreme example of the blind loyalty fallacy".  Sometimes expressed positively in that the leader takes (moral) responsibilty for decisions.  The opposite is: plausible deniability.  See also: just do it, gaslighting. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-02 459_lf
manifest destiny American exceptionalism, appeal to heaven, argumentum ad coelum, Deus vult, Gott mit uns, special covenant A fallacy based on claiming to know God's mind and wishes, which cannot really be challenged.  A "deluded argument from ethos".  Opposite of Job's comforter fallacy. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-14 460_lf
might-makes-right appeal to force, argument from force, argument from strength, argument from the club (stick), argumentum ad baculum, bullying, fascism, hard power, might-makes-right, muscular leadership, non-negotiable demands, power-play, resolution by force of arms, shock and awe A fallacy in which a conclusion is reached due to force, threat of force, or threat of unpleasantness.  A fallacy of relevance, since reason for conclusion is not relevant to the argument at hand. 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 461_lf
motivated ignorance 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 462_lf
myside bias choice-support bias, choice-supportive bias, defensiveness, myside bias A fallacy and bias in which "after one has taken a given decision, commitment or course of action, one automatically tends to defend that decision and to irrationally dismiss opposing options even when one's decision later on proves to be shaky or wrong".  A "fallacy of ethos (one's own)".  See also argument from inertia, confirmation bias. [3], [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-05 463_lf
need to know 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 464_lf
non-argument argument 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 465_lf
obscenity 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 466_lf
petitio principii begging the question, catch 22, circular reasoning, circulus in probando, petitio principii, vicious circle A fallacy in which the same proposition appears as a premise and as a conclusion (sometimes worded in two statements appearing differently enough to make this not very obvious); for example, "A, therefore B." and also "B, therefore A".  Sometimes, begging the question and circular reasoning are used interchangeably and sometimes with a difference--begging the question or petitio principii more specifically assumes as evidence the conclusion they are trying to prove.)  A fallacy of logos.  A component fallacy.  See also: complex question, big lie technique. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 467_lf
poisoning the well ad hominem argument, argumentum ad hominem, argument toward the man, attacking the person, personal attack 2024-06-11 2024-06-13 468_lf
selection effect selection bias, selection effect The result when "the members of a statistical sample are not chosen completely at random", and as a result, the sample is "not representative of the population".  An example of: availability heuristic. [6], [20] 2024-06-11 2024-07-07 469_cb
pro-innovation bias appeal to novelty, bad old days, early adopter's fallacy, pro-innovation bias, recency bias A fallacy that a view or other thing must be correct or better because it is new or recent. 2024-06-11 2024-06-21 470_lf
profanity 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 471_lf
profiteering 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 472_lf
propaganda 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 473_lf
radicalization 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 474_lf
romantic fallacy affective fallacy, appeal to emotion, appeal to pity, argument from pity, argumentum ad misericordiam, emotion over reflection, follow your heart, playing to emotions, romantic fallacy "An emotional appeal to what should be a logical issue".  "Opposite to this is...chosen emotion fallacy.  Often, "a fallacy of encouragement to root of the underdog regardless of the issues at hand".  "A corrupt argument from pathos."  A fallacy of relevance.  Closely related to angelism.  "Opposite to this is...chosen emotion fallacy."  Opposite of: appeal to rigor. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-24 475_lf
self justification attribution error, fundamental attribution error, self justification A tendency to assume that others' (poor) behavior results from character defects (personality) while under-emphasizing the influence of the situation on others' behavior, while, at the same time, one's own behavior is held to be due to environmental factors (situtation).  A "corrupt argument from ethos".  Obverse is: self debasement, self deprecation.  See also: group attribution error, ultimate attribution error. [3], [6] 2024-06-11 2024-07-10 476_lf
shearing the sheeple 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 477_lf
special covenant American exceptionalism, appeal to heaven, argumentum ad coelum, Deus vult, Gott mit uns, manifest destiny A fallacy based on claiming to know God's mind and wishes, which cannot really be challenged.  A "deluded argument from ethos".  Opposite of Job's comforter fallacy. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-14 478_lf
squeaky wheel gets the grease appeasement, assertiveness, i know my rights, squeaky wheel gets the grease A fallacy of obtaining a result not through argument but through the audience's willingness to give in so that the opposition will simply be satisfied, quieter, or no longer a nuisance.  Common in public agencies, education, and retail.  Sometimes promoted as a practical, nonviolent way for groups to promote change.  See also: bribery. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-06-26 479_lf
stay the course 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 480_lf
staying on message big lie technique, bold faced lie, staying on message A fallacy of "repeating a lie, fallacy, slogan, talking-point, nonsense-statement or deceptive half-truth over and over in different forms (particularly in the media) until it becomes part of daily discourse and people accept it without further proof or evidence".  Notably, "the bolder and more outlandish the big lie becomes the more credible it seems".  See also: alphabet soup, alternative truth; bandwagon fallacy, propaganda, straw man. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 481_lf
team player appeal blind loyalty, blind obedience, Nuremberg defense, team player appeal, unthinking obedience A fallacy which holds that "an argument or action is right simply and solely because a respected leader or source (a President, expert, one's parents, one's own side, team or country, one's boss or commanding officers) says it is right".  A corrupted argument from ethos.  See also: big brain little brain fallacy, soldiers' honor fallacy. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 482_lf
the perfect is the enemy of the good 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 483_lf
three monkeys fallacy 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 484_lf
tuning out 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 485_lf
unthinking obedience blind loyalty, blind obedience, Nuremberg defense, team player appeal, unthinking obedience A fallacy which holds that "an argument or action is right simply and solely because a respected leader or source (a President, expert, one's parents, one's own side, team or country, one's boss or commanding officers) says it is right".  A corrupted argument from ethos.  See also: big brain little brain fallacy, soldiers' honor fallacy. [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 486_lf
vicious circle begging the question, catch 22, circular reasoning, circulus in probando, petitio principii, vicious circle A fallacy in which the same proposition appears as a premise and as a conclusion (sometimes worded in two statements appearing differently enough to make this not very obvious); for example, "A, therefore B." and also "B, therefore A".  Sometimes, begging the question and circular reasoning are used interchangeably and sometimes with a difference--begging the question or petitio principii more specifically assumes as evidence the conclusion they are trying to prove.)  A fallacy of logos.  A component fallacy.  See also: complex question, big lie technique. [1], [2], [3] 2024-06-11 2024-07-03 487_lf
vulture capitalism 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 488_lf
wealth is the disease and I am the cure 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 489_lf
you also 2024-06-11 2024-06-11 490_lf
whataboutery whataboutery, whataboutism See also: appeal to a lack of evidence, appeal to ignorance, argumentum ad ignorantiam, and argument from ignorance. [3] 2024-07-10 917_lf
naturalistic fallacy G.E. Moore's naturalistic fallacy, naturalistic fallacy A fallacy of inferring "that X is good from any proposition about X’s natural properties".  Different than: "argument from nature", "the appeal to nature". [25] 2024-07-11 919_lf
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Clarification

Conceptually, cognitive biases are considered distinct from logical fallacies. The cb and lf suffixes in the id column roughly distinguish these categories. Logical fallacies represent argumentation errors, whereas cognitive biases describe mental tendencies that could result in processing errors. Both phenomenon types could result in errors in thought or decision. The list is combined for convenient lookups.

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